Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. History of Education

1.1. Brown V. Board of Education 1954

1.1.1. Contradicted the Plessy v. Ferguson case by stating that racial segregations in schools was unconstitutional

1.2. Plessy V. Ferguson 1896

1.2.1. U.S. Supreme Court case from 1896 that upheld the rights of states to pass laws allowing or requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions

1.3. The school serves as focal point for addressing societal issues

1.4. Colleges were established before the country was created

1.5. Grammar schools became elementary schools; Dame schools were for girls'; Secondary schools were for boys;  Education in the South was intended for upper class

1.6. Education for women and slaves was limited; University of Iowa 1856- first college to admit women

1.7. John Dewey- emphasized needs of individual to create better society--  Progressivism- reason we have vocational schools

1.8. Committee of Ten 1893 recommendations for HS- Charles Elliot--Harvard University President

1.8.1. Health

1.8.2. command of fundamental process

1.8.3. worthy home membership

1.8.4. vocation

1.8.5. citizenship

1.8.6. worthy use of leisure

1.8.7. ethical character

1.9. 4 themes of HS purposes

1.9.1. tension between classical subjects

1.9.2. college entrance requirements

1.9.3. students should be prepared for life, not College

1.9.4. all should follow same course of study

1.10. Secondary Act 1965: provided for special needs students-- IDEA

2. Sociology of Education

2.1. Relationships between School and Society

2.1.1. societal level- includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification

2.1.2. institutional level includes family, schools, churches, business, government and media

2.1.3. Interpersonal includes all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals

2.1.4. Intrapsychic which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions

2.1.5. Schools are oppressive and students are rebellious, they are forced to attend.

2.1.6. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement

2.2. Three Effects of Schooling on Individuals

2.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

2.2.1.1. The higher the social class, the higher level of educational achievement

2.2.1.2. Academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement

2.2.2. Employment

2.2.2.1. More education results in better jobs and opportunities

2.2.3. Education and Mobility

2.2.4. Inside the schools

2.2.4.1. Curriculum determines who goes to college

2.2.5. Teacher Behavior

2.2.5.1. teacher expectations influence students' behavior

2.2.6. student peer groups

2.2.6.1. Four major types of college students includes; -Careerists which are middle and upper middle class and do not have a good college experience. -Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politically motivated. -Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree. -Unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied

2.2.7. Education and Inequality

2.2.8. De facto segregation

2.2.9. Current educational crisis

2.3. Effective Schools:

2.3.1. Strong leadership

2.3.2. Safe environment

2.3.3. High expectations for all students

2.3.4. Continual review of student progress

2.3.5. Clear mission

2.4. Theoretical Perspectives

2.4.1. Functional- poses that society is best when a consensus rules

2.4.2. Conflict- poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups

2.4.3. Interactional- poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Idealism

3.1.1. Discussion and lecture

3.1.2. All new problems have roots in the past

3.2. Realism

3.2.1. Understand real world and use science and logic to solve problems

3.2.2. Aristotle developed system of logical thinking: major, minor premises, conclusion, understand facts and make assumptions

3.2.3. Thomas Aquinas, Francis Bacon, John Locke (Blank slate or tabula rasa)

3.2.4. lecture, and enable students to examine from objective approach

3.3. Pragmatism

3.3.1. John Dewey, George Sanders Pierce, William James, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

3.3.2. learning through experience-- "What is practical has meaning and value"

3.3.3. goal of education: provide knowledge to students to improve society

3.3.4. role of teacher is facilitator of learning activities

3.4. Existentialism & Phenomenology

3.4.1. existence precedes essence-- "we are who we are as a result of our decisions"

3.4.2. Goal of Education – The focus is on the individual, cognitively and affectively

3.4.3. Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world

3.4.4. Role of the Teacher - The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/student relationship

3.4.5. Curriculum – Humanities are heavily emphasized Students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world

3.5. Neo-Marxism

3.5.1. The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class

3.5.2. Neo-Marxist – a capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives

3.5.3. Goal of Education – schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups

3.5.4. Role of the Teacher – engage student s to critically examine the world which is similar to “wide wakeness”.

3.5.5. Curriculum is socially constructed

3.6. Post Modernist and Critical Theory

3.6.1. Goal of Education is to explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible

3.6.2. Role of the Teacher – an agent of change

3.6.3. Teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education

3.6.4. Schools and curriculum are agents of change

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Structure of U.S. Schools

4.1.1. U.S. Department of education has little power; Each state is responsible for education

4.1.2. Very democratic process of education

4.1.3. 1980’s and 1990’s- studies indicate private schools better learning environments; school choice has a significant credibility; Most private schools are located on the east and west coasts

4.2. Great Britain

4.2.1. The establishment of a national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church

4.2.2. 1944 Education created free elem. and sec. education for all

4.2.3. Margaret Thatcher and conservatives- tried to privatize public education

4.2.4. 1988 Education Reform Act- created  more centralized curriculum & system of national assessments

4.2.5. Comprehensive high schools have been eliminated

4.3. France

4.3.1. Only the very elite move up educationally

4.3.2. have schools for the poor and for the elite; top students go to the grandes e'coles

4.3.3. government controls everything down to the classroom

4.3.4. very competitive system

4.4. Former Soviet Union

4.4.1. Very centralized system- all students become productive citizens

4.4.2. being member of elite Communist Party had benefits for those children; created a stratified system

4.4.3. downfall of Soviet Union- result of inequality

4.5. Japan

4.5.1. 1880’s- centralized its educational system

4.5.2. Education is highly competitive; Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams

4.5.3. double system of education; Students educated publicly and then pursue the non-formal school or jukus

4.6. Germany

4.6.1. students are sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate careers

4.6.1.1. Hauptschule- lower level blue collar work

4.6.1.2. Realschule - lower level white collar and technical positions

4.6.1.3. Gymnasium-  intellectual and high level management positions

4.6.2. highly stratified and competitive

4.6.3. Academic achievement is very closely associated with social class

4.7. Finland

4.7.1. historically highest score on math, science, and literacy exams

4.7.2. all tracking is eliminated

4.7.3. almost no standardized testing; emphasis on formative evaluations; one standardized test for college entrance

4.7.4. high regard for teachers; large amount of autonomy; high degree of job satisfaction; shortages not an issue

4.8. School Process and Cultures

4.8.1. separate social organizations because;

4.8.1.1. definitive populations

4.8.1.2. have political structures

4.8.1.3. represent  multitude of social groups

4.8.1.4. prevailed by the “we feeling"

4.8.1.5. own special culture

4.8.2. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of disicipline

4.8.3. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations and conformity

4.9. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism

4.9.1. Requirements according to NCLB

4.9.1.1. A college degree

4.9.1.2. Full certification

4.9.1.3. Demonstrable content knowledge in the subject area

4.9.1.4. Praxis tests are require in most states

4.9.2. develop all kinds of interpersonal skills

4.9.3. Key to teaching is exercising control

4.9.4. John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. "what we teach and how we teach it"

5.2. -Social Influences -Political influences -Societies’ influences -Cultural influences -Special interests

5.3. Idealists

5.3.1. say we should teach the great works of mankind

5.4. Conservatist

5.4.1. say we should return to a humanist foundation

5.4.2. teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture

5.4.3. social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture

5.4.4. argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity

5.5. Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism

5.5.1. advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive

5.6. Social meliorists – reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

5.7. -Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects that we teach) -Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight (role models-Being honest, not bullying, etc.) -Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

5.8. www.ALEX.state,al,us

5.9. Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all.

5.10. Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum

5.11. Effects of the curriculum

5.11.1. Do students actually learn what is taught? assessment is needed

5.11.2. What is learned and what is taught may have a large gap between them

5.11.3. do all students have the same educational experience?

5.12. Maturity includes chronological maturity, social maturity, emotional maturity, culturally- valued maturity, political maturity

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Americans believe that hard work, thrift and a bit of luck should determine who gets ahead

6.2. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes

6.2.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies

6.2.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences

6.3. Social stratification – three systems

6.3.1. Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion.

6.3.2. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth.

6.3.3. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement

6.4. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class and financial success

6.5. class

6.5.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class.

6.5.2. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance

6.6. race

6.6.1. has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves

6.6.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans

6.7. gender

6.7.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

6.7.2. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries

6.8. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success; favors white Americans and upper and middle class students

6.9. IDEA 1996

6.10. REI – Regular Educational Initiative

6.11. The Coleman Study 1982

6.11.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success

6.11.2. Private school outperforms public school students

6.11.3. differences in schools do make a difference

6.11.4. racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's

6.12. Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing; highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools

6.13. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement

6.13.1. College graduates have higher salaries

6.13.2. The amount of education is directly related to life chances.

6.13.3. Life chances are directly related to social level and race; however, schools do have a slight impact

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Functionalist Theorists support  idea that students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed

7.2. Conflict Theorists support idea that student success is affected by their environment

7.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by combination of  family, social class schools and environment

7.4. Characteristics of effective schools:

7.4.1. climate of high expectations for students by faculty

7.4.2. strong and effective leadership by a principal or school head

7.4.3. accountability processes for students and teachers

7.4.4. monitoring of student learning

7.4.5. high degree of instructional time on task, where teachers spend a great deal of their time teaching and students spend a great deal of their time learning

7.4.6. flexibility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems

7.5. "Every thing you teach depends on your students' maturity"

7.6. The Big Question:   Do schools reproduce inequality?

7.6.1. Yes, but lots of factors

8. School Reform

8.1. Characteristics of Highly Effective Teachers

8.1.1. A ‘Calling’ for the profession

8.1.2. Professional knowledge

8.1.3. Personal qualities

8.1.4. With-it-ness

8.1.5. Instructional Effectiveness

8.1.6. Good communicator

8.1.7. Street smart

8.1.8. Willing to go the extra mile

8.1.9. Lifelong learner

8.2. Reform in education 1980’s to 2012 Two Waves of Attack:

8.2.1. The first was concerned with accountability and achievement.

8.2.2. The second was concerned with the processes of the school.

8.3. Federal Involvement

8.3.1. America 2000 p. 514

8.3.1.1. creating better

8.3.2. Goals 2000 p. 515

8.3.3. No Child Left Behind p. 517

8.3.4. Race To The Top p. 518

8.4. Neo Liberal Approach

8.5. Societal And Community Approach

8.6. Teacher Education Programs

8.6.1. More intellectual demands in education programs

8.6.2. Attract and retain competent teachers

8.6.3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development

8.7. Do the best with what you have that is within your control.

9. Politics of Education

9.1. The Purposes of School p.22

9.1.1. intellectual- cognitive skills

9.1.2. political- to indoctrinate people into particular order of patriotism

9.1.3. social- help people be sociable and productive in society

9.1.4. economic- prepare students for their occupation

9.1.4.1. everyone can determine their outcome

9.1.5. The ability to transmit knowledge, skills, and values.

9.2. FAPE= Free and Appropriate Public Education

9.3. 3 Political Perspectives

9.3.1. Conservative- Individual is responsible for your own success

9.3.2. Liberal- believes free market (left unregulated) is prone to significant abuses, particularly to those disadvantaged economically and politically

9.3.3. Radical- believes democratic socialism is a fairer political economic system (blames everyone)

9.3.4. It's all about where your school puts emphasis.

10. Limits & Promises

10.1. Achievement Gap= difference between where students should be and where they actually are

10.1.1. Needs assessment