Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics in Education

1.1. The Purposes of Schooling

1.2. Intellectual- cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, language.

1.3. Political- to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism. (for the people)

1.4. Social- to help people be sociable, productive members of society.

1.5. Economic- prepare students for their occupation.

1.6. (p.22)

1.7. Purpose of schooling/Education- society's ability to transmit knowledge skills, and values. (pg.21-22)

1.8. FAPE- free appropriate public education.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education

2.1.1. Plessy v. Ferguson

2.2. old deluder satan law 1647

2.3. Massachusetts school law of 1647

2.4. Harvard established  in 1636 and yale was established in 1701. Established before country was created.

2.5. Franklin saw education to support trades and common man. Jefferson supported public education.

2.6. Meritocracy provided for higher education. grammar schools became present day elementary schools. Dame schools were created for girls. Secondary schools were created for boys and the elite. Latin grammar schools (Boston). Education in the south

2.7. The Committee of Ten, 1893- created by the National Education

2.8. civil rights act of 1963

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. theoretical perspectives include; functional theories, conflict theories, interactional theories.Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers.

3.1.1. effective schools include-strong leadership, a safe and orderly environment,  high expectations that all can learn, continual review of student progress, and a clear mission.

3.2. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend.

3.3. Attitudes-The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement. Differences between schools is not a significant impact. Academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement.

3.4. Employment- More education results in better jobs and opportunities.

3.5. Education and Mobility- Education is the great equalizer in the status race. Where you attend has great impetus. Poor and rich people see no effect on their social status as a result of their education attainment. Competition is not fair. Winners win with exceptions and losers are dropped from the competition. Rules are not always fair.

3.5.1. Inside the School-Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs. Not all students study the same curriculum Curriculum determines who goes to college. Cultural transmission, selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum.

3.6. Teacher Behavior-Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis. Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success. The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success.

3.7. Student Peer Groups and Alienation-Rebellious students and violence in schools Nerds, coolness and athletes Four major types of college students includes; Careerists which are middle and upper middle class and do not have a good college experience. Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politically motivated. Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree. The Unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied.

3.8. Education and Inequality-

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Idealism (Socrates and Plato). Idealist in education encourage students to search for truth. With truth comes responsibility. Idealist in education encourage students to search for truth. With truth comes responsibility.

4.1.1. Role of the teacher; a role model in the classroom. To provoke thought. To bring out what is already in their mind.

4.1.1.1. Methods of Instruction Discussion Questioning Lecture on material not presented in text.

4.1.1.1.1. Curriculum Study the great works All new problems have their roots in the past Study history Great literature, sciences, math, history, philosophy A basic core foundation

4.2. Realism-The material world is real It exist without anyone perceiving The real world exist before ideas exist. Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking Syllogism or a system of logical thinking.

4.2.1. A major premise A minor premise Conclusion Understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions.

4.2.1.1. Tabula Rasa- Blank slate.

4.2.1.1.1. Notable Realists Thomas Aquinas Francis Bacon John Locke (Blank slate or tabula rasa)

4.2.1.2. Goal of Education Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems.

4.2.1.2.1. Role of the teacher Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner. Enable students to examine from an objective approach.

4.3. Pragmatism-Learning through experience experiential learning. “What is practical has meaning and value” The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome.

4.3.1. Philosophies that were born from Pragmatism Progressivism – John Dewey Social Reconstructionism – George Counts,

4.3.1.1. The Goal of Education Provide students with the knowledge to improve society.

4.3.1.1.1. Role of the Teacher – facilitator of learning activities Methods of Instruction – learn individually as well as in groups.

4.4. Existentialism & Phenomenology-Existence precedes essence. We are who we are as a result of our decisions. Perception of the world is based on one’s ability to make sense of it.

4.4.1. Goal of Education – The focus is on the individual, cognitively and affectively. Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world.

4.4.1.1. Role of the Teacher - The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/student relationship. Students must become “wide awake”.

4.4.1.1.1. Methods of Instruction – Each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities and working together.

4.5. Neo-Marxism-The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class.Neo-Marxist – a capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives.

4.5.1. Goal of Education – schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups.Education enables individuals to understand the weaknesses of the dominant society and propose alternatives.

4.5.1.1. Role of the Teacher – engage students to critically examine the world which is similar to “wide wakeness”.

4.5.1.1.1. Curriculum – socially constructed Teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated.

4.6. Post modernists and critical theory-The Goal of Education is to explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible. Working together to achieve balance and equity through democratic transformation.

4.6.1. Role of the Teacher – an agent of change.Curriculum and Instruction p. 196 Democratic processes Teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education. Schools and curriculum are agents of change.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970. The U.S. Dept. of Education has very little power.

5.1.1. Governance; Those powers not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated to the states. Each state is responsible for education.

5.1.1.1. Most private schools are located on the east and west coasts. Connecticut has the most and Wyoming has the least.

5.1.1.1.1. Student Composition in Public Schools 53.5 % are white Of the states, 16 have less than 50% white Ten states have no minorities Large states are heavily multiracial. New York City is 85.6% minority. Los Angeles is 91.3% minority Detroit is 97.4% minority.

5.2. Great Britain-In 19th Century England the rich had education in privates schools. The poor did not get educated. The establishment of a national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church. The 1944 Education created free elem. And sec. education for all. England decentralized the education system which had been fundamentally elitists. Margaret Thatcher and conservatives tried to privatize public education by created parental choice and reorganizing the administrative structure, but with very limited success. The 1988 Education Reform Act created a more centralized curriculum and systtem of national assessments.Schools are still very stratified socially and economically. Comprehensive high schools which prepared students for the workforce have been eliminated.

5.2.1. France has a very elitists educational system. Only the very elite have the opportunity to move up educationally. They have schools for the poor and schools for the elite. The top students go to the grandes e’coles. The government controls everything down to the classroom. The France system is very competitive.

5.2.1.1. Former Soviet Union-Very centralized system where all students would become productive citizens leaving no one in need. Being a member of the elite Communist Party had benefits for those children. This special interest created a stratified system. The downfall of the Soviet Union was a result of the inequality that was created. Due to so many nationalities there is very little consensus among the former USSR states.

5.2.1.1.1. Japan-In the 1880’s Japan centralized its educational system. After WWII, Japan focused on the economic purpose to drive educational purposes. Education is highly competitive. Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams. A double system of education exist. Students are educated publicly and then pursue the non-formal school or jukus. There are 10,000 jukus in Japan.

5.3. School Processes and Cultures-Schools are separate social organizations because; They have definitive populations, They have political structures. They represent a multitude of social groups. They are prevailed by the “we feeling”. They have their own special culture

5.3.1. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching. Communities are in conflict with administration. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of disicipline.

5.3.1.1. Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum.Changing a school culture requires patience, skill and good will. “Schools of Tomorrow…Today Project” in New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teaching.

5.3.1.1.1. Changing a school; Conflict is a necessary part of change. New behaviors must be learned. Team building must extend to all parts. Process and content are interrelated

5.4. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism

5.4.1. John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform. In 2008, 75% of all teachers are women. Thirty-seven percent have B.S. Sixty percent have Master’s degrees. One percent had doctorates. Average age is 46. A shortage of teachers exists.

5.4.1.1. High school seniors indicate that less than 10% will be a teacher. Requirements according to NCLB A college degree Full certification. Demonstrable content knowledge in the subject area. Praxis tests are require in most states. Each state has a different test score acceptance level for certification.

5.4.1.1.1. The nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a result. This multiple roles are a significant factor in teacher burn-out. Teachers have had to develop all kinds of interpersonal skills. More of an artist than a technical teacher. Most effective feedback is from students. Key to teaching is exercising control. Control precedes teaching. A classroom must have control to be an effective learning environment. Turn each day into a special event.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. What is taught and how do we teach it? Social Influences Political influences Societies’ influences Cultural influences Special interests

6.1.1. Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind.

6.1.1.1. Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation.Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization. Conservatist of the 1980’s and 1990’s say we should teach what is fundamentally  basic to a common culture. P282 Conservatist say that social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture.

6.1.1.1.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum.Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Do you have the following beliefs?; Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead.Americans believe that hard work, thrift and a bit of luck should determine who gets ahead.

7.1.1. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences. P. 339

7.1.1.1. Social stratification – three systems Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. P. 340

7.1.1.1.1. The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success. P. 340

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

8.1.1. Other factors that influence student success are; Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

8.1.1.1. Multidimensional factors include everything that affects student success.

8.1.1.1.1. Student Centered Explanations p. 421 Genetic Differences Explanations p. 422 Cultural Deprivation Explanations p. 423 Cultural Differences Explanations p. 423-427

9. Limits and Promises

9.1. Achievement Gap - difference between what students should know and what  they should know.

9.2. Needs Assessment-

9.3. Assessment Issues

9.4. Decline of Literacy