Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual: teaching children reading, writing, math, literature, history, etc... and to teach students higher-order thinking skills

1.1.2. Political: to prepare students to participate in our political system, to assimilate all cultures into a common political order, and to teach the basic laws of society

1.1.3. Social: teach children to solve social issues, to teach them to work together in a social institution, and to teach them various roles and behaviors of society

1.1.4. Economic: to prepare children for their future occupational roles and to train them in their division of labor

1.2. Conflicting Perspectives

1.2.1. Role of the School: The liberal perspective claims that schools should make sure that every student as an equal opportunity to succeed. They emphasize the importance of teaching students to be culturally aware so they can function in a culturally diverse society. They focus on the importance of having educated citizens to participate in our nation's politics.

1.2.2. Unequal Educational Performance: The conservative perspective claims that students succeed or fail based on their own intelligence or ambition. They claim that the school system is designed to allow for success, so if they do not succeed, the student is at fault.

1.2.3. Definition of Educational Problems: The conservatives claim that schools have reduced their standards and educational quality to please the liberal and radical demands for greater equality. They also believe that schools have a weakened ability to pass on American culture, they are more chaotic, and that schools are have restricted freedom  thanks to bureaucracy.

2. History of Education

2.1. I think the emergence of the public high school had the most influence on education. With the huge influx of students attending public high school, the purpose of education and the curriculum had to be re-evaluated. It began shaping the public school system curriculum as we know it today.

2.2. The Democratic- Liberal interpretation of the history of U.S. education focuses around increased opportunities for equality for all students of all backgrounds. This interpretation claims that more culturally diverse students started going to school for longer periods of time. The liberals interpret U.S. education history optimistically and tend to disregard it's flaws.

2.2.1. Task

2.2.2. Prerequisites

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Functionalism: All parts of society work together, and conflicts represent a breakdown of society. Schools need to socialize students into appropriate values, and sort them according to their abilities. Education needs to create programs and curricula to promote social unity.

3.2. Conflict Theory: Social order is based on dominant groups imposing their will on lower groups through force or manipulation. In education, students struggle against teachers, and teachers against administrators. This promotes learning, and students are selected by their abilities, not social status. Power relations in the school reflect power relations in society.

3.3. Interactionalism: Schools are middle-class organizations. This theory combines the functionalism and conflict theories. Both the everyday interactions between students and teachers and the process by which kids are labeled "disable" or "gifted" are important to analyze. This takes educational theory to less generalized, microsociological view point.

3.4. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.4.1. Knowledge and Attitudes: The attitudes of students has a major impact on their learning. Research shows that the higher social class the student is in, the higher their academic level is. If the student comes from a background where education is valued, they are more likely to succeed in school.

3.4.2. Teacher Behavior: Teachers have a huge impact on student learning. Teachers are models for students, and whatever attitudes they project about schooling or education, the students will eventually reflect as well. Teachers influence the students' self esteem. When teachers act like they are interested in the student's success, the student is more likely to actually succeed.

3.4.3. Student Peer Groups and Alienation: Students that joined a peer group that were headed toward low-status jobs were more likely to become rebellious and violent. After school, students continue to fall into different "groups" of college students that affect how likely they are to succeed in. Whatever peer group the student falls into in high school is the group that the student will most likely continue in into college. Schools develop subcultures, traditions and restraints that influence the students and their success.

3.4.4. Inadequate Schools: Inadequate schools particularly affect minorities and poor children. Students that attend suburban schools or private schools usually receive better education and their diplomas carry higher social value. The type of school that a student attends greatly impacts their educational achievement.

3.4.5. Gender: Men and women do not share equally in the United States. Girls generally start out with higher cognitive and social levels than boys, but by the end of high school, girls have lower self esteem and lower goals than boys. The fact that most teachers are female and most administration is male could be sending a message to girls implying that they are subordinate to men. A female student may feel less motivation to achieve as high goals as a male student.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism

4.1.1. Generic Notions- Existentialism is an  individualistic philosophy. It claims that individuals are placed on Earth alone and that people have to create their own sense of meaning

4.1.2. Key Researchers- Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Jean Paul Satre

4.1.3. Goal of Education- Existentialism says that the cognitive and affective needs of the student should be met. Education needs to focus on student individuality, and schools should address how to cope with anxiety of the world.

4.1.4. Role of Teacher- Teachers need to take risks, be open to difficult students, and teach students to be "wide awake". They need to teach students to decide who they are and what choices they want to make.

4.1.5. Method of Instruction- Existentialism says that learning is a personal experience, and that it's up to the teacher to discover each child's individual learning styles. It also says that the students and teachers should work together to discover future opportunities and possibilities.

4.1.6. Curriculum- Existentialists claim that curriculum should be focused on the humanities: literature, art, drama, music. The curriculum should encourage personal interaction within students. Students should be exposed early to problems in the world as well as solutions.

5. School as Organizations

5.1. State Senators

5.1.1. Clay Scofield

5.2. House of Representative

5.2.1. Will Ainsworth

5.3. State Superintendent

5.3.1. Michael Sentance

5.4. Representative on State School Board

5.4.1. Cynthia Sanders McCarty

5.5. Local Superintendent

5.5.1. John Mullins

5.6. Local School Board

5.6.1. Chuck Reynolds

5.6.2. Judy Elrod

5.6.3. BC Maze

5.6.4. Wayne Trimble

5.6.5. Susan LeSeur

5.7. Elements of Change

5.7.1. Conflict is a necessary part of change:

5.7.1.1. Any change within any social structure will cause disagreements, and the staff must be prepared to manage and resolve conflicts.

5.7.2. New behaviors must be learned

5.7.2.1. Change requires new behaviors and relationships. Change must include encouraging communication and trust, to allow new leadership, initiatives, collaboration, and techniques of conflict resolution to arise.

5.7.3. Team building

5.7.3.1. The school staff must be engaged in shared decision making and their relationships with one another.

5.7.4. Process and Content

5.7.4.1. The content of change is just as important as the process of change. The substance of a project depends on the trust and relationships between staff members.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.1.1. This curriculum is student centered and is focused on relating the curriculum to the interests or needs of a child at a particular developmental stage. It's claims that flexibility is important in both what you teach and how you teach it. It also relates the curriculum to real world experiences to make education more meaningful to the student.

6.2. Dominant teaching Traditions

6.2.1. Mimetic

6.2.1.1. The purpose of education is to transmit information to students. It stresses lectures or presentations as ta major form of instruction. The education process is simply transferring information from the "knower" to the "learner".

6.2.2. Transformative

6.2.2.1. The purpose of education is to change the student in a meaningful way: intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally. There is no authoritarian relationship between student and teacher. Teaching begins with active participation of the student and results in growth.

7. Equality of Oppportunity

7.1. Impact on Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class: The longer a child stays in school, the more financial help they will need from a parent. This is limiting to a lower-class student. Studies show that the number of books in the home is related to the children's academic achievement. So if parents cannot afford books, that may put the child at a disadvantage academically. Schools also represent cultural values of middle and high class families, so this also puts lower-class families at a disadvantage.

7.1.2. Race: An individual's race has a direct impact on their academic success. White students usually have a lower drop-out rate and higher SAT scores than African-American or Hispanic students. Minority students receive fewer opportunities than White students, because in the US, for the most part, race is related to class.

7.1.3. Gender: Although historically, women are rated to be better students than men, men usually reach a higher level of education. Men rate better in math than women, and women rate better than men in reading and writing. Women have caught up to men in academic achievement in the recent years. More women attend post-secondary institutions than men, but men that do attend post-secondary institutions usually choose more prestigious ones.

7.2. Coleman Study from 1982

7.2.1. 1. Some researchers claimed that the differences between public and Catholic (private) schools were significant. However, the differences in learning were trivial. They claimed that some private schools are organized in a way that directly influences student outcomes, but the difference between private and public schools may not actually be that significant.

7.2.2. 2. Some researchers said that where a student attends school is related to race and socioeconomic background. Researchers Borman and Dowling claimed that a student's race and class often predict their academic success. They say that US schools must change the highly segregated school systems in order to narrow the achievement gap. They also argue that we must eliminate the biases that put middle-class, white students at an advantage.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. 1. One type of cultural deprivation theory argues that working class and minority families lack the cultural resources for their children to be successful in school. It says these students come to school unprepared- with lacking social and intellectual skills.

8.1.2. 2. Another perspective states that lower class families also do not have the same values or motivation as middle and upper class families. The culture of poverty rejects hard work and does not view education as a necessary means for success.

8.2. School Centered Educational Inequality

8.2.1. 1. School financing: There are significant differences between higher-end school districts and poorer school districts. Public schools are financed by local, state, and federal funds, but the majority comes from local and state taxes. Schools in lower-end communities receive less taxes because the families of the students receive less income. So the affluent schools receive more funding, because the families of the students have higher incomes. Using federal aid to equalize school funding is controversial.

8.2.2. 2. Curriculum and ability grouping: Students are placed in groups with other students at the same academic achievement level as them. Students in the lower groups, who receive altered content or slower paced lessons, don't have as much of a chance to improve as the students placed in the higher groups. Tracking is a controversial topic, some say it ensures the "best and brightest" students are well prepared for their essential societal roles. Others argue that having lower expectations from the lower groups prevents them from growing.

8.2.3. 3. Gender: Males and females view the world in a very different way. Schools are somewhat biased towards the way men view the world. Society rewards men for acting like a man, and negatively affects women for acting like a woman. The modern school eliminates much of women's history and lives from the curriculum, thus creating an environment in favor of men. Feminists argue that school organization, pedagogy, and curriculum in schools need to be changed to be better suited for women.

8.2.4. 4. Curriculum and pedagogic practices: A larger proportion of students who attend high socioeconomic schools are more successful than students in a low socioeconomic school. In working-class schools, teachers are more likely to have an authoritarian attitude, schools in the middle class are more student-centered, and schools in the upper class have authoritarian teachers and a classical-humanistic curriculum. Pedagogic practices change with class level of the school, and greatly affect student success.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. 1. School-Business Partnerships: Some businesses form partnerships with schools in order to improve the economy and prepare students to be productive citizens in society. Some partnerships included scholarships for poor students to attend college. Corporate and business support for schools has decreased significantly since the 1970s. In more recent years, several foundations and entrepreneurs have greatly contributed to to school reforms.

9.1.2. 2. Teacher Quality: A major issue recently is how to attain high quality teachers in the school systems. Inadequate teaching is somewhat a result from teachers teaching subjects that are not included in their degree. This is detrimental because highly qualified teachers become unqualified when they teach outside of their field. Combined with the fact that it's easier for principals to higher unqualified teachers, teachers also have low status in society, and often deal with poor working conditions, and this results in high drop out rates. Some argue that in order to attain and continue to keep highly qualified teachers, the organization of the schools need to change.

9.2. Community Reforms

9.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools: many organizations have created programs that help teach parents how to have academic conversations with their children, how to create a healthy home environment, and how to implement effective discipline methods. Geoffrey Canada's program "Baby College" provides items to its participating families that they cannot afford themselves.

9.3. Economical Reform

9.3.1. School Finance: Supreme Court decision in 1973 ruled that there is no constitutional right to an equal education. In 1990, the court ruled that more funding was needed to serve children in poor school districts. The state was soon required to implement supplemental programs such as preschool and to renovate urban schools. Other programs included social services, increased security, school-to-work, afters school programs, etc.. These programs help improve schools for low income and minority students, but there are still factors outside of the school that need to be improved.