Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual-basic cognitive skills

1.1.2. Social-socialize children for different roles

1.1.3. Economic-prepare and train for future occupational roles

1.1.4. Political-allegiance to the existing political order

1.2. The Role of the School

1.2.1. Conservative Perspective-conservatives believe education is essential and provides training that will maximize economic and social productivity.

1.2.2. Liberal Perspective-liberals believe education provides all students with an equal opportunity to be successful in society and also balances the needs of society.

2. History of Education

2.1. Reform of Education

2.1.1. In 1779 Thomas Jefferson passed the Virginia Legislature for free education for all children.  This was the start for free public education.

2.1.2. In 1839 Horace Mann continued the fight for public education with the first state normal school in Lexington, Massachusetts.

2.1.3. In 1821 Emma heart Willard opened Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York.  This was a start for women's education.

2.1.4. In 1846 Robert v. City of Boston the first African American college was established making it possible for African Americans to have an equal opportunity for education.

3. School Reform

3.1. School based reforms

3.1.1. Charter Schools:public schools free from traditional regulations are held accountable for student preformance

3.1.2. School to work programs: help students get prepaired with skills they will need for college and work force

3.2. Societal, economic, community, and political reforms

3.2.1. School finance reforms

3.2.2. Full service and community schools

3.2.3. Harlem childrens zone

3.2.4. Connecting School, community, and Societal reforms

4. Education Inequality

4.1. Cultural Deprrivation

4.1.1. Minority or lower class families lack cultural resources or educational stimuli and enter the school system ill prepaired

4.1.2. another rhteory is it is simply school system or teachers fault

4.2. Schhol centered explanations for educational inequality

4.2.1. School Financing

4.2.2. effective school research

4.2.3. Between school differences: Curriculum and pedagogic practices

4.2.4. Within school differences: curriculum and ability grouping

4.2.5. Gender and schooling

5. Sociology of education

5.1. Theoretical Perspective

5.1.1. Functionalism

5.1.1.1. Functionalist believe students are the pieces of a puzzle that all fit together in schools and eventually make society work

5.1.2. Conflict Theory

5.1.2.1. Conflict Theorists believe social order is not part of a collective  agreement. They do not see society held together based on just shared values.  they feel economics, politics, and culture play a large part.

5.1.3. Interactionalism

5.1.3.1. Interactionalism looks at the macrosociological or large scale perspective by seeing the classes or school as a whole.

5.2. Effects of Schooling

5.2.1. Knowledge and attitudes

5.2.1.1. Student's attitude toward education and their achievement level .

5.2.2. Education and mobility

5.2.2.1. Depending on a students level of education or where they receive their education can determine what doors are opened for the future

5.2.3. Teacher Behavior

5.2.3.1. Teacher's influence and standards have a huge impact on student's behavior and the way they learn

5.2.4. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

5.2.4.1. Student culture  plays a role in shaping students views of education

5.2.5. Inadequate Schools

5.2.5.1. The level of education and quality of education a student receives.

6. Equality of opportunity

6.1. How class, race, and gender impact educational outcomes

6.1.1. Class: Education costs money so a students education can be directly effected by class. Homes of higher class are more likely to have books in the home and higher education expectations which promotes educational achievement and attainment whereas lower class may not.

6.1.2. Gender: In history females were better students however males were more likely to attain higher levels of education. Today females are still better students in reading proficiency and writing with the exception of math where males out preform females.

6.1.3. Race: studies have shown dropout rates for whites at a low 5.2%, Afican Americans at a 9.3%, and Hispanic Americans with the drop out rate of 17.6% because minorities are not given the same educational opportunities.

6.2. Responses to the Coleman Study 1982

6.2.1. Difference among schools makes difference in cognative growth

6.2.2. academically oriented schools and burecratic schools

7. Education Philosophy

7.1. Pragmatism-Encourages people to find processes that will work in order to achieve desired ends.

7.1.1. George Sanders Pierce, William James, John Dewey, Frances Bacon, John Locke,

7.1.2. Generic Notions: Instrumentalism and experimentalism, belief in progress, a better democratic society through education.

7.1.3. Goals of education: Provide students with to improve social order and make social progress from a democratic point of view.

7.1.4. Role of the Teacher: Facilitator who encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps implement courses of study.

7.1.5. Methods of Instruction: Individual or in groups, students questioning what they want to know, problem solving or inquiry method, students were allowed to converse quietly and get up and stretch.

7.1.6. Curriculum: Core curriculum, against traditional subject matter, related to the needs and interest of students.

8. Curriculum and Pedagogy

8.1. Humanists

8.1.1. idealists philosophy

8.1.2. purpose of education is to present what has already been taught

8.2. Developmentalist

8.2.1. related to curriculum to needs and interest of child at each particular developmental stage

8.2.2. development of curriculum stressed to the importance of relating school to life experiences of each child that would make education come alive in a meaningful manner

8.2.3. teachers were not transmitters of knowledge but facilitators of student growth

8.3. social Effeciency

8.3.1. pragmatist approach

8.3.2. belief that different groups of students with different needs should receive different types of schooling with an individual and flexible curriculum

8.4. Social Melorist

8.4.1. helps students become aware of social problems and become active in changing the world

8.4.2. want to solve societies problems

8.4.3. philosophically social reconstructionists

8.4.4. role of the school was to reform society

9. Schools as Organizations

9.1. State Senators: Jeff sessions, Richard D. Shelby

9.2. House of Representatives: Ed Henry

9.3. State Superintendent: Micheal Sentance

9.4. Representative on the State School Board: Cynthia Sanders McCarty , Ph.D

9.5. Local Superintendent: Bill W. Hopkins, Jr.

9.6. Local School Board: Morgan County Board of Education

9.7. Elements of Change within school processes and school cultures

9.7.1. Governance or decentralization in schools

9.7.2. Size and degree of centralization or amount students and funding

9.7.3. Student Composition or race, class, and gender