Respiratory Alkalosis

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Respiratory Alkalosis by Mind Map: Respiratory Alkalosis

1. Pathophysiology

1.1. Metabolism of fats & Carbs = c02

1.2. Chemoreceptors in brain & periphery control H+ ions

1.2.1. senses increase

1.2.2. Tachypnea to "blow off" c02/H+

1.2.3. Hyperventilation continued = hypocapnia

1.3. Lungs blow off C02

1.3.1. Renal system eliminates bicarb (HC03) in alkaline urine

1.3.2. by doing this they save H+ ions in the body

1.4. Hypocapnia

1.4.1. Decreased serum K+ and P04- (intracellular shifts)

1.4.1.1. hypocalcemia

1.4.1.1.1. Decreased plasma membrane stabilit (increased /permeability)

1.4.1.2. hyponatremia

1.4.1.2.1. Hypoosmololity

1.4.1.3. hypophosphatemia

1.4.1.3.1. cellular use of Po4- for ATP formation

1.4.1.3.2. increased permeability

1.4.1.3.3. Decreased energy metabolism

1.4.1.3.4. decreased oxygenation to tissues

1.4.1.3.5. decreased platelet- risk for hemorrhage increased

1.5. If chronic: renal compensation keeps pH normal

2. Symptoms

2.1. Lethargy & Confusion

2.2. Anxiety

2.3. Nausea/vomiting

2.4. Hyperventilation

2.5. Seizures

2.6. Tachycardia

2.7. arhythmias

2.8. Numbness/tingling extremities

2.9. Tetany

2.10. Weakness

3. Definitions: Increased respiration's, decreased C02 levels, Increased blood pH levels

4. Causes

4.1. Hyperventilation

4.1.1. Panic disorder

4.1.1.1. Anxiety

4.2. Liver disease

4.3. Compensation for renal failure

4.4. Asthma

4.5. Mechanical ventilation

4.6. Hypermetabolism

4.6.1. Fever

4.6.2. Hyperthyroidism

5. References

5.1. Akner, G., & Larsson, K. (2016). Undernutrition state in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A critical appraisal on diagnostics and treatment. Respiratory Medicine,117, 81-91. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2016.05.023

5.2. Bruno, C. M., & Valenti, M. (2012). Acid-base disorders in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A pathophysiological review. Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology,2012, 915150-8. doi:10.1155/2012/915150

5.3. McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2014). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in  adults and children. (7th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-0-323-08854-1

5.4. Terzano, C., Di Stefano, F., Conti, V., Di Nicola, M., Paone, G., Petroianni, A., & Ricci, A. (2012). Mixed acid-base disorders, hydroelectrolyte imbalance and lactate production in hypercapnic respiratory failure: The role of noninvasive ventilation. PloS One, 7(4), e35245.

6. Balanced by PTH, Vit D, Calcitonin