Vernacular architecture

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Vernacular architecture by Mind Map: Vernacular architecture

1. Definition

1.1. ICOMOS

1.1.1. traditional and natural way of communities housing themselves

1.1.2. continuous adated to social and environmental changes

1.2. who?

1.2.1. by professional architects

1.2.2. by ordinary people with same cultural of ethnic root

1.3. how?

1.3.1. share knowledge of a particular region, traditional

1.3.1.1. timeless way of building

1.3.1.2. tradition is mostly pass by oral and labour

1.4. what?

1.4.1. include buildings and landscapes

1.4.2. common materials, construction systems and crafts

1.4.3. local dialect in built form

1.4.4. buildings built in a particular place at particular time

1.5. examples ("architecture without architects")

1.5.1. by natural subtraction

1.5.1.1. cave dwellings

1.5.1.2. Gironde

1.5.2. by attaching

1.5.2.1. hill towns

1.5.2.2. cliff dwellings

1.5.2.3. aquatics architecture

1.5.3. nomadic

1.5.3.1. yurt

1.5.4. town

1.5.4.1. family size

1.5.4.1.1. hk village

1.5.4.2. fortified

1.5.4.2.1. tulou

1.5.5. arcades

1.5.5.1. covered

1.5.5.1.1. Spain

1.5.5.2. semi-covered

1.5.5.2.1. Africa

1.5.6. fragmented

1.5.6.1. pile

1.5.6.1.1. Chinese Ho keou

1.5.6.2. skeletal

1.5.6.2.1. lake garda

2. rural vernacular buildings

2.1. a village or settlement - organized structure with good cultural landscape setting behind it

2.1.1. settings

2.1.1.1. a place with embedded things like nomadic people

2.1.1.2. natural

2.1.1.2.1. mountains

2.1.1.2.2. waterways

2.1.1.3. man-made

2.1.1.3.1. god shrines

2.1.1.3.2. burial sites

2.1.1.3.3. rice fields

2.1.2. settlements

2.1.2.1. a place with community established

2.1.2.2. forms of production in the landscape

2.1.2.2.1. agrarian

2.1.2.2.2. fishing

2.1.2.3. clustering of people within a settlement

2.2. a physical represesntation of livelihood and social economic and cultural system

2.2.1. example

2.2.1.1. diaolou

2.2.1.1.1. social

2.2.1.1.2. economic

2.3. connection to the spiritual and cosmic realm

2.3.1. logic

2.3.1.1. highly dependent on natural environment

2.3.1.2. belief god control the season and natural environment

2.4. building method

2.4.1. material

2.4.1.1. agricultural by product

2.4.1.2. from primitive on site and natural materials

2.4.2. learn and succeed the way of the previous generations

2.4.3. conscious planning and precise workmanship

3. urban vernacular

3.1. typologies

3.1.1. japanese townhouse

3.1.1.1. room behind align along alley

3.1.1.2. flexbible room seting on second floor with tatami

3.1.1.3. front could open for shops

3.1.2. south asian bungalow

3.1.2.1. originated from 1 or 1.5 story grass roof house and britis colonization of India

3.1.2.2. high ceiling and deep veranda in front

3.1.3. asain shop house

3.1.3.1. hybrid of chinese precedence and western

3.1.3.2. family upstairs kitchen at back closely connected to other family

3.1.4. urban houses in nepal

3.1.4.1. centered on main temple of coexisting hinduism and budduism

3.1.4.2. material - stones, ,mud, timber frames

3.1.4.3. animals on ground floor

3.1.4.3.1. live stock

3.1.4.3.2. warmth production

3.1.4.4. kitchen as welcoming visitors

3.1.5. definition

3.1.5.1. types - aspects of the organization of buildings

3.1.5.2. variation - the differences between buildings within a particular type due to contigencies of loaction, construction or use

3.1.6. closely related to living activities

3.2. relationship with city character

3.2.1. arrangement

3.2.1.1. grid

3.2.1.1.1. examples

3.2.2. density and diversity

3.2.2.1. hybrid building

3.2.2.2. china town Muslim area in other country

3.3. vs rural

3.3.1. similarities

3.3.1.1. architect usually not involved

3.3.1.2. still about locality

3.3.2. difference

3.3.2.1. may not built by thet residents themselves

3.3.2.2. material may not from the nature

3.3.2.3. may not be individually finance

4. informal settlement

4.1. reason of existence

4.1.1. historical, political and social reason

4.1.2. economic

4.2. affect cultural and social identities

4.3. usually illegal

4.4. can be the drain or deadend of the economy of those who living in it

4.5. characteristic

4.5.1. rough material

4.5.2. similar to the neighbor

4.5.3. particular way of living

4.6. kind of land occupied

4.6.1. city outskirts

4.6.1.1. unused land not yet developed by developer

4.6.2. within cities

4.6.2.1. adjacent to railroads/highways/public facilites

4.7. layouts

4.7.1. grid

4.7.2. organic

4.8. material

4.8.1. sheet metal

4.8.2. concrete

4.9. problematic condistion

4.9.1. water drainage

4.9.2. hygiene problem

4.9.3. security

4.9.4. crowded

4.9.5. electricity supply and leakage

5. landscape

5.1. type

5.1.1. public/private

5.1.2. urban/rural

5.1.3. natural/man-made

5.1.3.1. natural

5.1.3.1.1. not affect by human activities

5.1.3.2. man-made

5.1.3.2.1. definition

5.1.3.2.2. elite

5.1.3.2.3. commoners

5.1.4. ethnographic ("Hardesty, Donald L, Ethnographic Landscapes Transforming Nature into Culture")

5.2. definition

5.2.1. visible features of an area of land with aesthetic appeal

6. Threats in Asia

6.1. economic, cultural and architectural homogenization

6.2. global socioeconomic transformation

6.3. unprecedented growth and change

6.4. high value land price

6.5. major infrstructure programs

6.6. environmental pollution

6.7. the demand of more carrying capacity

6.8. human activities like war and campaign,etc

6.9. natural disaster

6.10. stakeholders

6.10.1. communities

6.10.2. government

6.10.3. planners

6.10.4. architects

6.10.5. conservationist

6.10.6. multidisciplinary specialists

7. cultural

7.1. definition

7.1.1. tangible or intangible

7.1.2. accumulated with times and changed with time

7.1.2.1. There is no frozen point of culture. Culture is an accumulated process.

7.1.2.2. like a process which is constantly changing

7.1.3. collective vs individual

7.1.3.1. way of living and common values

7.1.3.2. collective identity of a group

7.2. programme and user

7.2.1. way of living and culture

7.3. ornament and symbol

7.3.1. show world views and religious ideas

7.4. materials

7.4.1. system, technologies

7.5. examples

7.5.1. Banyan trees at the entrance for communual space and

7.5.2. ancestral hall for negotiation and deals

7.6. three levels in Rapoport's framework ("Vernacular architecture of the World- Meaning")

7.6.1. people and their use of space

7.6.1.1. low level meaning

7.6.1.1.1. can identify social situations and expected behavior, privacy and accessibility, seating arrangement, movement and way finding

7.6.1.1.2. example

7.6.1.2. middle level meaning

7.6.1.2.1. identity , status , whealth and power by features

7.6.1.2.2. examples

7.6.1.3. high-level meaning

7.6.1.3.1. examples

7.6.1.3.2. philosophies and relationship with the universe

7.6.2. approach

7.6.2.1. specific method and tech

7.6.2.2. liguistic and semoitic models

7.6.2.3. non-verbal communication in psychology and ethology

7.6.2.4. symbolic

8. climate

8.1. characteristic in Asia

8.1.1. world largest population

8.1.2. compose highest population and lowest population

8.1.3. include 8 climatic zones

8.1.3.1. Arctic and Subarctic

8.1.3.2. continental

8.1.3.2.1. typologies

8.1.3.2.2. dry and cold

8.1.3.2.3. could be hot in day time

8.1.3.3. desert

8.1.3.4. Maritime

8.1.3.4.1. control by summer and winter monsoons

8.1.3.5. Monsson

8.1.3.5.1. hot and rainier

8.1.3.6. Tropical and equatorial

8.1.3.7. montane

8.1.3.7.1. altitude of land

8.1.3.7.2. orientation of slopes

8.1.3.8. subtropical

8.1.3.8.1. humid and warm

8.2. strategies

8.2.1. cope with it instead of fighting against

8.2.1.1. fenestration

8.2.1.1.1. large windows for hot and wet

8.2.1.1.2. small windows for hot and dry

8.2.1.1.3. muslim Jali sunshading rather than ventilation

8.2.1.2. fixture

8.2.1.2.1. heated beds

8.2.1.2.2. kangs

8.2.1.3. material

8.2.1.3.1. white wash plaster wall(Suzhou)

8.2.1.3.2. dried plants in southeast Asia

8.2.1.4. form

8.2.1.4.1. more floors and stepped roofs for more suunlight

8.2.1.4.2. courtyard house

8.2.1.5. positioning

8.2.1.5.1. raised floor made of clay for thermal insulation (Japan)

8.2.1.5.2. soil for thermal insulation

8.2.1.5.3. stilt structure - raised platform prevent flooding

8.2.1.6. orientation

8.2.1.6.1. theory

9. material

9.1. types

9.1.1. natural

9.1.1.1. mud

9.1.1.2. clay

9.1.1.3. wood

9.1.1.4. stone

9.1.1.5. grass

9.1.1.6. animal products

9.1.1.7. timber

9.1.1.8. earth

9.1.1.8.1. ram earth

9.1.1.8.2. adobe brick

9.1.1.8.3. earth cave

9.1.2. manufactured

9.1.2.1. glass

9.1.2.1.1. rolled sheet

9.1.2.2. cast iron

9.1.2.3. tin sheets

9.1.2.4. corrugated metal sheets

9.1.2.5. asbestos sheets

9.2. construction method

9.2.1. slip forming

9.3. rituals and ceremonies

9.3.1. for

9.3.1.1. harvesting of building materials

9.3.1.2. selecting auspicious days

9.3.1.3. start of construction

9.3.1.4. construction process

9.3.2. example

9.3.2.1. hk roast pig offerings to the construction deity

9.3.2.2. japan, Chinese ancestral altars

9.3.2.3. Chinese fengshui ("Vernacular Architecture of the World ")

9.3.2.3.1. locate the qi

9.3.2.4. japanese Hoigaku ("Shibata Tatsuya, Hoigaku Japanese"

9.4. dimensionning

9.4.1. luban scale

9.4.2. human body

9.4.2.1. foot inch

9.4.2.2. finger

9.4.2.3. fore arm

10. conservation

10.1. cultural values

10.1.1. definition

10.1.1.1. shared social value within the community

10.1.2. outstanding universal value

10.1.2.1. its value transcends national boundaries

10.1.2.2. of common importance for present and future generations of all humanity

10.2. sustainable

10.2.1. culturally

10.2.2. physically

10.3. threat

10.3.1. rapid urbanization

10.3.2. uncontrolled population

10.3.3. environmental degration

10.3.4. economical land prices pressure

10.3.5. urban renewal

10.3.6. globalization

10.3.7. cultural homogenization

10.3.8. human ignorance

10.3.9. wars

10.4. definition

10.4.1. creative forward looking activities

10.4.2. vs preservation

10.4.2.1. frozen in time

10.5. authentic

10.5.1. should not replicate and create a fake one

10.6. approach

10.6.1. not just for tourism

10.6.2. adopt to modern standard of living

10.6.3. refurbishment must not affect the cultural values of the structure

10.6.3.1. The amount of change to a place should be guided by the cultural significance of the place and its appropriate interpretation.

10.6.4. the original fabric is not removed.

10.7. cultural sustainability