Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Four purposes of education

1.1.1. 1.teach cognitive skills

1.1.2. 2. prepare citizens for political order

1.1.3. 3. prepare students for economic future

1.1.4. 4 To get students used to socialization

1.2. Educational problems

1.2.1. Radical perspective 1. failed poor, minorities, and women through policies 2. Curriculum teaches conformity 3. Curriculum consists with being sexist, homophobic, classist, and racist 4. Leaves out history, voice, and cultures of oppressed 5. Promotion of inequality

2. School reform

2.1. School based reforms

2.1.1. School-to-work 1. Intent was to extend what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college bound sutdnets. 2. Provide students with a system to prepare them for the high-wage, and high-skill careers that are available 3. This was created using federal seed money by the School-to-work Opportunites Act 0f 1994 signed by Bill Clinton.

2.1.2. Teacher quality 1. 1/5 of secondary classes are taught by teachers who do not hold a teaching certificate in that subject. 2. Urban schools have more out of subject teaching then other school systems. 3. Research suggests that this problem has little to do with shortage of teachers. Has more to do with organization in schools in the hiring process. 4. Teach for America, The New York City Teaching Fellows Program and New Jersey's Alternative Certification Program are all programs in place to deal with the problem of wrong staffing.

2.2. Full Service and Community Schools

2.2.1. 1. Focus on meeting students and their families education, physical, psychological, and social needs in a coordinated fashion.

2.2.2. 2. Schools service as community centers.

2.2.3. 3. Schools offer services to the community such as adult education health clinics, mental health services, job placement, and many more.

2.3. Harlem Children's Zone

2.3.1. 1. Providing quality early childhood education helps minorit and low-income children to be successfull.

2.3.2. 2. Programs are provided to parents in Harlem before their child so they know how to tend for their children.

2.3.3. 3.Parents are also taught how to have academic conversations with their children to further the child's academic life.

3. Educational inequality

3.1. Cultural deprivation theory

3.1.1. 1. First deprivation theory suggests that working class and non white students often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational items.

3.1.2. 2.. The second theory suggests that lower class students do not grow up in community that has middle class values or culture. This is detrimental to their education.

3.2. School Financing

3.2.1. 1.Vast differences in funding for schools in poor districts compared to rich districts.

3.2.2. 2. Public schools are funded by a combo of revenues from local, state,, and federal taxes. Local and state taxes make up the majority of funds.

3.2.3. 3. This indicates how poor communites can't fund their schools as well as more thriving communities. This leads to a lesser education being given to the students.

3.3. Within school difference

3.3.1. This is the possibility that the school lacks the ability to ability group and track curriculum of the students. This leads to education inequality within the school. Some students may thrive and others fail

3.4. Communities

3.4.1. Some suggest that the area that students live in determine how well students do in school. If they live in an area where the community puts an emphasis on education students will thrive. Where as other communities don't have the same culture so students lack motivation to do well in school.

3.5. Genetics

3.5.1. Some suggest that how students do in school is strictly based on the ability of the student. Some students are blessed with the capacity to learn more then other students. This plus the initiative of the student equates to their success

4. Curriculum and Pedagogy

4.1. Developmentalist curriculum

4.1.1. 1. Is related to the needs and inerests of the student

4.1.2. 2. 2. Id student centered

4.1.3. 3. Relates schooling to life experiences of each child to make edc=ucation meaningful.

4.2. Dominant traditions of teaching

4.2.1. Mimetic tradition 1. Relies on the lecture or presentation as the main form of education. 2. Relates education as the porcess of transferring knowledge from the knower to the learner. 3.Stress the importance of rational sequencing in the teaching process andassement of the learning process.

4.2.2. Transformative tradition 1. Purpose of education is to change student in a meaninful way. 2. Communication includes conversation between the student and the teacher in which the student becomes an integral part of the learning process. 3. Use of questioning is the core of this process.

5. Sociology of Education

5.1. 5 effects of schooling

5.1.1. 1. Employment Amount of education increases oppourtunity for employment Higher education generally increases amount of income

5.1.2. 2. Inadequate schools Inadequate schools reproduce inequality Fail to educate students in low income areas and minority students

5.1.3. 3. Tracking Directly affects cognitive devlopment Students are often not placed on ability but by class and race High ability students get better teachers and facilities compared to their lower ability peers

5.1.4. 4. Student peer groups and alienation Students headed toward low income jobs are likely to join rebellious groups Cultures and groups shape students education experiences Schools idealize athletic ability and looks Subcultures are important after high school

5.1.5. 5. Teacher behavior Teachers behavior effects students self esteem and efficacy sense . Teachers have up to 1000 personal contacts with students every day Teachers expectations plays a role in if students work to their full potential

5.2. School and society

5.2.1. Functionalism Stresses interdepedence of social system Schools socialize students into appropriate values and sort students based on ability Structures, programs, and curricula encourage social unity, are technically advanced, and rational

5.2.2. Conflict theory Ideologies are created by economic, political, cultural, and military powers Relations between power groups and subordinate groups structured society schools are viewed as social battlegrounds

5.2.3. Interactional thoery Interactional theory includes the everyday intereaction between students and teachers. This theory is based on critiques and extensions of conflict theory and functional theory

6. History of Education

6.1. Progressive reform

6.1.1. Takes account the student as a social being.

6.1.2. Based on student center learning. Where curriculum is based on students powers and interests.

6.2. Democratic-Liberal School

6.2.1. Attempts to expand education to bigger portions of the population.

6.2.2. Importance of social goals equals that of intelluctual ones.

6.2.3. Students from diverse backgrounds getting opportunities of education.

6.2.4. Promotes equity and excellence. System must achieve both to be successful.

7. Philosophy of Education

7.1. Pragmatism

7.1.1. Generic notion Education starts with the needs and interests of the students in the classroom.

7.1.2. Goal of education Provide students with the knowledge of how to improve social order

7.1.3. Role of teacher Teachers role is that of the facilatator. Teacher encourages and implements plans of study that are student centered

7.1.4. Method of instruction Individualized study, problem solving, and project method

7.1.5. Curriculum Curriculum of expanding environments. Curriculum is not fixed.

7.1.6. Key researchers George Pierce, William James, and John Dewey

8. Schools as organizations

8.1. State senators

8.1.1. Jeff sessions

8.1.2. Richard shelby

8.2. House of representatives

8.2.1. Mo Brooks

8.2.2. Bradley Byrne

8.2.3. Robert Aderholt

8.2.4. Martha Roby

8.2.5. Terri Sewell

8.2.6. Gary Palmer

8.2.7. Michael D. Roger

8.3. State superintendant

8.3.1. Michael Sentance

8.4. Local superintendant

8.4.1. Dr Sisk

8.5. Representative on state school board

8.5.1. Mary Scott Hunter District 8

8.6. Local school board

8.6.1. Limestone county school board

8.7. Elements of change

8.7.1. 1. Conflict

8.7.2. 2. New behaviors being learned

8.7.3. 3. Team building

8.7.4. 4. Process and content are interrelated

9. Equality of opportunity

9.1. Class

9.1.1. Education is expensive so this favors students who come from the upper and middle class. Where lower class has lower expectations for their students. Students from upper class homes have more books and resources readily available compared to the working class peers. Students from the lower class get less resources and go to lesser schools. This gives them less of a chance at a great education

9.2. Race

9.2.1. Individuals race has a direct impact on their education. 9.3 percent of African-american and 17.6 percent of Hispanic-American students are likely to drop out of school. This is a lot higher then the 5.2 percent of white students. Ability to read at an intermediate level, Act, and Sat scores are all lower of African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans as well. So race is related to educational outcomes.

9.3. Gender

9.3.1. Females are better in areas such as reading, writing, and are less likely to drop out of school compared to their male counterparts. But where the fall short of males is in the mathematics field. Males also typically score higher SAT scores then females.Gender difference continue to be reduced.

9.4. Coleman Study

9.4.1. Response one Where an individual goes to school has little effect on his or her cognitive growth or education mobility.

9.4.2. Respone two Differences between public and private schools do make a difference. Private school students performed higher in every subject compared to public school students.