Environmental Disturbances Caused By Bakun Dam

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Environmental Disturbances Caused By Bakun Dam by Mind Map: Environmental Disturbances Caused By Bakun Dam

1. Fish (Aquatic Life)

1.1. Functions

1.1.1. Eat plants in the water

1.1.2. Form waste product to act as fertilizers to the plants in the water

1.1.3. Provide food for other animal and humans

1.1.4. Dead fish will act as fertilizers

1.2. How constructions of dams kills the fishes

1.2.1. Deep and Steep Sided

1.2.2. Alteration of physical habitat

1.2.3. Reduction in sediment supply

1.2.4. Adverse effects on water levels and salt-water intrusion

1.3. Effects of death of fishes

1.3.1. Decline the aquatic ecosystem's health

1.3.2. Decrease water quality problems - water pollution

1.3.3. Disrupts various food chain

1.4. Ways to overcome death of fishes

1.4.1. Advocating to reduce pollution

1.4.2. Inspiring local conservation

1.4.3. Promoting sustainable living

2. Forest

2.1. Function of the forest

2.1.1. Erosion protector

2.1.2. Species protection

2.1.3. Emission protection function

2.1.4. Water conservation

2.2. Why deforestation occur

2.2.1. To clear the area to build the dam

2.3. Effects of deforestation

2.3.1. 1.5 million hectares logged

2.3.2. 70,000 hectares of reservoir area cleared

2.3.3. Destroys 50 million cubic meters of biomass home

2.3.3.1. Affects the habitat of flora and fauna

2.3.3.1.1. More than 1600 flora

2.3.3.1.2. Fauna

2.4. Ways to overcome deforestation

2.4.1. Use recycled items

2.4.2. Reforestation

2.4.3. Support conservation organizations

2.4.4. Law reinforcement

3. Population

3.1. Ways to overcome the problem faced during building of the dam

3.1.1. Relocate the population

3.2. Function of human in the ecosystem

3.2.1. Searching for resources that they needed to use in their lives

3.2.2. Example: Digging deep into the ground in search for petroleum to make fuels

3.3. How construction of Bakun Dam effects the population

3.3.1. More than 10,000 indigenous people that live along the Rajang and Balui river were forced to move

4. Water (abiotic component

4.1. How water generate electricity

4.1.1. Rejang River - 205 m high and 15000 meter cube capacity.

4.1.2. Hydroelectric - Moving Water and Renewable Source.

4.1.3. Comprises of eight 300MW generating units.

4.2. Water pressure

4.2.1. Restrain large volume of water

4.2.2. Cause the flooding of water over large area of land

4.2.3. Forming reservoir which increase the water density and depth of water contained

4.2.4. Induction of high hydrostatic pressurewill change the nature of flowing-water ecosystem of Balui River

4.3. Water quality

4.3.1. Negatively influence water quality through changes in the concentration of dissolved oxygen, nutrient loads, and suspended sediments

4.3.2. Reservoirs like Bakun Hydroelectric Project trap sediment and most of the nutrients normally flowing through a river. This will alter downstream habitats because sediments are no longer able to provide organic and inorganic nutrients, and also changes the acidification of the reservoir water.

4.4. Effects of submerged area

4.4.1. High nitrogen loading at reservoir

4.4.1.1. How?

4.4.1.1.1. Vegetation behind dam not cleared

4.4.1.1.2. Surrounding land is used for industrial agriculture (palm oil)

4.4.1.2. Effects?

4.4.1.2.1. Water acidity

4.4.1.2.2. Erosion

4.4.1.2.3. Potent methane smell

4.5. Hydrologic Alteration

4.5.1. Effects

4.5.1.1. Life histories of aquatic species are disrupted by changes in river flow

4.5.1.2. Reduce river system's connectivity which will prevent fishes and other animals from migrating freely through a river system

4.5.2. Ways to overcome

4.5.2.1. Facilitates the introduction and success of nonnative species that thrive in disturbed habitat