# Physics 1010 (Quarter 1)

Get Started. It's Free Physics 1010 (Quarter 1) ## 1. Metric Units

### 1.1. Giga (G)

1.1.1. x 1,000,000,000

### 1.2. Mega (M)

1.2.1. x 1,000,000

1.3.1. x 1,000

1.4.1. x 100

1.5.1. x 10

1.6.1. Gram

1.6.2. Second

1.6.3. Meter

1.6.4. Candela

1.6.5. Mol

1.6.6. Kelvin

1.6.7. Ampere

1.7.1. x 1/10

1.8.1. x 1/100

1.9.1. x 1/1,000

### 1.10. micro (u)

1.10.1. x 1/1,000,000

### 1.11. nano (n)

1.11.1. x 1/1,000,000,000

## 2. Quantum Mechanics

### 2.1. Quantized

2.1.1. Sections that cannot be broken up.

2.1.2. Mass is quantized in atoms

2.1.3. Energy is quantized

2.1.4. Cannot take ½ steps

2.1.5. Length is quantized

### 2.3. You cannot go back and forth between quantum and special relativity.

2.3.1. They are like oil and water to each other. They simply repel

### 2.4. Quantum Tunneling

2.4.1. Protons and neutrons are in a potential well.

2.4.1.1. Some potential wells are smaller or more filled than others so it takes less energy to take stuff out.

2.4.1.1.1. When we wish to change a certain substance into something else, we must convince one of the protons or neutrons to jump out of this potential well.

2.4.1.2. Quantum Tunnelling suggests that the particles have found a way to simply slip out of the wall unsupervised. This is extremely dangerous because now the element itself is completely changed.

2.4.1.2.1. This could take the electron with it, or the electron could just spin off

2.4.1.2.2. The lower you get into a well, the slower your clock ticks.

### 2.5. Quantum Entanglement

2.5.2. Happens when two particles are created from the same point in the universe.

2.5.3. Spin is a word used to describe electron behavior. Much like the charge.

2.5.3.1. An electron can either be spin up or spin down.

2.5.4. Once electrons are quantum entangled, you may separate them and stick them in separate boxes.

2.5.4.1. Once you open the lid on one and it chooses a spin, you can instantly tell on the other electron whether it is spin up or spin down

2.5.5. Nothing is instant EXCEPT quantum entanglement

2.5.6. Distance is not a barrier

2.5.7. When you check the electron, it instantly chooses to be spin up or spin down

2.5.7.1. This is being looked at as a possible way to communicate with people who are in space and very very far away. Even with communication through light speeds, it could not even compare to quantum entanglement. There are light years. No such thing could exist with this because it is instant.

2.5.8. Also could be looked at for quantum computing

2.5.9. Shrodinger’s Cat Theory

2.5.9.1. If you put a cat in a soundproof box that you cannot see into, do you really know if the cat is alive or dead? You do not know if it is until you open the box to check on it. When you open the box, the cat then decides whether it is dead or alive. Until you measure it, you have no idea.

## 3. Relativity

### 3.1. Special Relativity

3.1.1. Only deals with a specific set of instances

3.1.3. Based on light

3.1.3.1. Velocity (speed) = distance/time

3.1.3.1.1. Time = distance / Velocity (speed)

3.1.3.2. Light travels at 186,000 m/s

3.1.3.3. C = the speed of light

3.1.3.4. Speed of light is constant in a vaccum

3.1.3.5. The faster you travel through space, the less you can travel through time.

3.1.4. Constant Velocity

3.1.4.1. There is nothing you can do to tell if you are the one moving

3.1.4.1.1. Cannot be speeding up (no acceleration)

3.1.4.1.2. Cannot be slowing down (no deceleration)

3.1.4.1.3. Cannot be changing direction

3.1.4.2. Constant Velocity = Rest

3.1.5. Length Contraction

3.1.5.1. S=V+U

3.1.5.1.1. S = object at rest

3.1.5.1.2. V = moving object

3.1.5.1.3. U = speed

3.1.5.2. The faster you go, the more mass you are perceived to have

3.1.5.3. Lorenz Contraction is length contraction

3.1.5.4. Velocity (speed) = distance/time

3.1.6. Simultaneity

3.1.6.1. Something I saw happen at the same time doesn’t mean it did by someone else’s frame of reference.

### 3.2. General Relativity

3.2.1. Gravity only functions on objects with mass.

3.2.1.1. Fg = Gm1m2 / D^2 (gravity equation)

3.2.1.1.1. Force of Gravity = Gravity of mass 1 x mass 2 / distance ^2

3.2.1.2. 9.8 m/s^2 (gravity acceleration on earth)

3.2.1.3. Gravity = Acceleration

3.2.1.4. In order for “gravity” to work, it needs an object with mass.

3.2.1.5. Falling and space are the same.

3.2.1.6. The mass curves space-time. This causes other objects to be attracted to this said object. All objects are forced to follow the curve. Even light is bound by the curvature of space-time. This is how scientists proved it existed in the first place.

3.2.1.7. Things want to be at low energy

3.2.1.8. Force (F) = Mass (M) x Acceleration (A)

3.2.2. There is no difference when dealing with space-time between moving and not moving. There is however a large difference between rotating and not rotating.

3.2.3. Rest Mass

3.2.3.1. How much energy something has when sitting still

3.2.3.2. m=F/a

3.2.3.3. The more mass, the slower the acceleration

3.2.3.4. When you take an object and accelerate it, you are converting energy

3.2.3.5. Mass increases as speed increases

3.2.3.6. Charge is given by mass

3.2.3.7. Gravitational mass and inertial mass are equal

3.2.4. General Relativity is Special Relativity applied

3.2.5.1. A set of twins were separated. One stayed on the earth, and one got on a rocketship. The one on the rocketship traveled at a speed of .9c around for a time and then came back. When the twin in the rocket returned, you see that their twin is 50 years older than the one who stayed on earth is. The question, is whose clock/time was wrong?

3.2.5.1.1. The twin on the rocketship was the twin with the incorrect clock because the twin on the rocket ship was the one which was moving.

3.2.5.2. The person who suffers the most change is the one whose clock/time is wrong. Always.

3.2.6. Frame Dragging

3.2.6.1. Twisting/shifting of space around an object of mass

3.2.6.1.1. When space-time gets twisted.

3.2.6.2. Because space-time is infinite, when planets spin and "wind the cloth of it around themselves," it does not matter in the eternal spectrum of things. We will never run out of cloth to spin.

3.2.6.3. However, this does cause a rotating orbit for some planets. We can see Mercury’s orbit change very easily.

3.2.7. Light

3.2.7.1. Light is a photon particle that travels like a wave

3.2.7.2. Light also must bend according to space-time

3.2.7.2.1. This can create an effect known as Einsteins cross, or Einsteins halo depending on where you are relative to the curvature.

3.2.7.3. Light doesn’t lose energy, it changes color/frequency.

3.2.7.4. The larger/slower the wavelength = more red

3.2.7.5. The smaller/faster the wavelength = more violet

3.2.7.6. The wave theory of light was proven by Thomas Young in the Double Slit Experiment

3.2.7.6.1. This created bright dots when the slits were small enough rather than two lines

3.2.7.6.2. This also showed that when two waves meet they can reinforce or cancel.

## 4. Significant Figures

### 4.1. 2 different types of numbers

4.1.1. Exact

4.1.1.1. When you count or a defined relationship

4.1.1.1.1. Ex. pi, 1/3, square root 2

4.1.1.2. Exact numbers are infinitely important

4.1.2. Measured

4.1.2.1. Measured numbers are measured with a measuring device so they always have error

### 4.2. Rules

4.2.1. Rule 0: All non-zero digits are significant

4.2.2. Rule 1: Zeroes in the middle of a number are like any other digit, and are always significant

4.2.3. Rule 2: Zeroes at the beginning are not significant

4.2.4. Rule 3: Zeroes at the end and after the decimal are significant

4.2.5. Rule 4: Zeroes at the end of a number and before an implied decimal point may or may not be significant

### 4.3. Scientific Notation

4.3.1. is a convenient way to write very small/large numbers

4.3.2. numbers are written as a product of a number between 1 &10, times the number 10 raised to a power

## 5. Properties and Applications of Waves.

### 5.1. electromagnetic radiation and visible light.

5.1.1. A magnetic field is an electric field viewed by another frame of reference

### 5.2. Light is a wave and a particle.

5.2.1. Electrons in Atoms

5.2.1.1. When the atoms of a gas are excited, by heating or applying an electrical field, their electrons are able to move from their ground state to higher energy levels.

5.2.1.1.1. Atoms are lazy. They always want to return to their ground state. It takes energy to move or excite an electron and move it further away from the nucleus.

5.2.1.1.2. This energy corresponds to particular wavelengths of light, and so produces particular colors of light.

5.2.1.1.3. Each element has a color "fingerprint".

5.2.1.2. Each time a photon is emitted an electron must be changing in energy by that amount (releasing energy).

5.2.1.2.1. Electrons only change between very specific energies.

5.2.1.2.2. Only way for individual atoms to give off energy is as light.

5.2.2. Light comes in packets of energy

5.2.2.1. The larger the packet, the higher frequency the energy within the packet is

5.2.2.1.1. Because higher frequencies are so demanding, they often lose out and the energy must be carried in the lower frequencies which require less cookies (energy). This is also known as the Average Energy which we also call Temperature.

5.2.2.1.2. A lightbulb is about 3200K hot. This is the highest energy packets that may be emitted without ultra violet light.

5.2.2.2. The smaller the packet, the lower frequency the energy within the packet is

5.2.3. Electrons don’t orbit - they are waves

5.2.4. Electrons may or may not exist when not looking but a wave will be there in place of it.

5.2.5. Act of measuring collapses wave equation

5.2.5.1. When you measure, the electron choses a place. Electrons are both a wave and particle. They behave like a wave and particle. Wave particle development.

5.2.5.2. There is no “outside observer”

5.2.5.3. When you observe waves, you are actually observing particles.

5.2.6. When you speed an electron up or down or change direction, it spits out energy

5.2.7. Electron is everywhere until measured.

5.2.7.1. “Fuzzy”

5.2.7.2. Electron Clouds

5.2.7.3. Orbitals

5.2.8. This is called wave particle duality

## 6. Planck in a Glance

### 6.1. Plank Constant Explains how electrons orbit atoms

6.1.1. h=6.63 x 10^-34

### 6.2. Plank Length

6.2.1. 1.6 x 10^-35

6.2.1.1. This is less than the length of a proton by a factor of 10^20

6.2.2. .000000000000000000000000000000000016

6.2.3. (h*G)/c^3=Plank Length

6.2.4. Plancks length is really only used with special physicists and cosmotologists

### 6.3. Plancks Time

6.3.1. Plancks Length / c = plancks time