7 Aspects of Civilization

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7 Aspects of Civilization by Mind Map: 7 Aspects of Civilization

1. Government and Leaders

1.1. The king was responsible for building temples and maintaining the cities borders

1.2. The priest conflicted with the king and where known as the largest land owners, sitting with the council of the elders

1.3. Government was based on Monarchy

1.4. The army of the state of Qin captured the city of Chengzhou where the last Zhou ruler, King Nan, was killed.

2. Religion

2.1. Sumaria

2.1.1. -Also, practiced polytheism because Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism weren't created yet          -Worshiped Ancestors and believed that their own success was because of their dead ancestors happiness.                                        -Shang Ti was their main god and people believed that to make him happy praying, rituals and occasional human sacrifice was necessary.                                                         -Would seek advice from ancestors through oracle bones which were inscribed small animal bones or turtle shell. They would ask the question then put hot metal on the oracle bone which made cracks, then priests would interpret what the cracks meant for their answer.                                                               -In most tombs there was valuable items like jade and bronze.                                               -Made meals thinking of their dead ancestors then ate the food but believed that the steam from the food was for their ancestors and that it made them happy.

2.2. Shang

2.2.1. -Practiced polytheism which is the worship of many gods.                                                           -Believed that that the gods controlled all natural forces.                                                        -Believed that the gods had great power and control over each city-state                                 -Believed gods were like humans in many ways and that they ate, drank, married and had fights.  -Built ziggurats and temples as places of worship.                                                                 -Priests initially governed the city states.

3. Arts and Education

3.1. Mesopotamian Art

3.1.1. There are different forms of Mesopotamian art including statues/ frescos/cylinder seals/plaques and panels. Families also used statues in there homes for decoration!

3.1.2. Documents where formed by clay and signed  using a rounded seal and where carved with unique images

3.2. Shang

3.2.1. During the Shang dynasty bronze working became more common.

3.2.1.1. Many things were made from bronze including  -drinking vessels                                                -chariots and axes for battle                              -when royalty died they were buried in their      tomb with hundreds of bronze artifacts

3.2.1.1.1. ex. of a bronze drinking vessel

3.2.1.1.2. ex. of a bronze axe

4. Science and Technology

4.1. In addition to art Sumerians came up with science or as they know "the observing of nature and in there environment they depend on for food and resources".

4.2. Writing

4.3. The first known case of writing was developed in Mesopotamia by the Sumerians at around 3000 bc. There alphabet was small, triangular, wedge shaped and in a geometric form, representing phonetic sounds. Scribes wrote on tables of  clay and used styluses. These objects are very similar to ballpoint pens!

4.4. ex. of the Mesopotamian alphabet

4.5. Example of the new technology including wagons

5. Geography and Agriculture

5.1. China

5.1.1. The Western Zhou was characterized by the establishment of the numerous regional states mainly in East China.

5.1.1.1. ex. of East China Regions

5.1.2. China was divided into a number of small states competing for power.

5.2. ex. this image shows the ways of farming and irrigation

6. Social structure and family life

6.1. Sumaria

6.1.1. -Had a large population. By the time it was the chief city of southern Mesopotamia some historians believe that Babylonian empire had 100,000 people.                                                   -There were slaves that were the lowest class that farmed estates owned by kings, high officials or other wealthy people. Slaves also worked on irrigation projects and did construction on temples, palaces and city walls.  -There were peasants that were apart of the average class that were mostly farmers.               -The highest class was made up by kings, high officials, merchants and other wealthy people.    -Houses were made of sun dried brick. Families spent a lot of time in their homes but not nearly as much as today because they were mainly farmers.                                                    -Families were very close. They often practiced rituals to worship their ancestors together.

6.2. Shang

6.2.1. -Had an extremely large population.                                                                                             -The lowest class was farmers.                                                                                                       -The middle class was made up by merchants, priests and military nobility.                                 -The highest class was the king.                                                                                                     -Families were very close and generally had many kids.                                                                -The elite were buried in large pit tombs sometimes the workers who built the tomb were buried alive with them. Also, many valuable items were buried with the rich. An elephant was found in one tomb with the king.                                                                                                   -The middle class was buried in decent size pits.                                                                           -The lowest class were often just thrown in wells when they died.

7. Economy and Trade

7.1. Eastern Zhou

7.1.1. Trade expanded when money and goods circulated mostly through commerce.

7.1.1.1. In result rich merchants won high office.

7.1.1.2. ex. of Eastern Zhou currency

7.1.2. Thinkers competed for the ruler's patronage, by moving from one court to the other explaining their economic, etc. views in search of employment.

7.1.3. When the dynasty of Zhou ended it resulted in China becoming unified.

7.1.3.1. ex. end of the Zhou dynasty