Ware, Information Visualization, p.166
Ware, Information Visualization, p.158
A rapidly oscillating/moving target demands more attention than a slower-moving target. Velocity coding urgency
Visual speed modulated by size - larger objects seem to move more slowly than small objects.
Ware, Information Visualization, p.232-239
Causality, People order relationships via space-time, so movement implies causality and a change in the environment., Causality is modulated by timing. Objects can be seen as "triggering" each other, and directionality can be causal cues, "Perceived when objects are sufficiently distinguished to appear as not identical and when at the same time, the sequence is unified to appear as one process"
Motion can convey emotional qualities
Ware, Information Visualization, p.233
Rectangular frame provides a strong cue for motion detection. Smaller frames could highlight smaller groups
Motion of elements is modulated by motion of adjacent elements
Ware, Information Visualization, p.179: Visual space is divided into regions according to the predominant spatial info and orientation info
Things that are close together are perceptually grouped together
"we perceptually group regions of similar element density"
Similar elements are grouped together even if they are not proximal
More likely to construct visual entities out of continuous elements.
Implies connectedness, which is a fundamental organizing principle
Ware, Information Visualization, p.208
Closed contour tends to be seen as an object, because of our tendency to close objects with gaps in them
Induces perceptual tendency to divide space into "inside" and "outside"
Ware, Information Visualization, p.146
Ware, Information Visualization, p.168
Distinguishing from surrounding colors easier when objects are grouped into clusters in which that color is rare
Perception influenced by experience, recency, familiarity, context. "What we see is determined simply by what we have known before"
Induces subjective judgments on the part of the viewer due to lack of visual pattern
Can affect how hierarchies are percieved
Lack of cues
Unbalanced compositions, Because the elements seem to be subject to change, the pattern doesn't allow perceptive judgment on the meaning. Multiple interpretations are possible., Balanced patterns allow judgment of pattern within context
"Sharpening" - changing ambiguous elements into ones with clear asymmetrical dominance
"Leveling" - changing ambiguous elements into ones with clear symmetrical dominance.
Space is defined by the motor forces that populate it. Elements withdrawing from each other create distance, centrality is established when elements relate to it.
Visual units are perceived as relationships on a visual background. 'Background' can include range of immediate surroundings to the optical field as a whole (p.17). Limitations of the picture surface become the frame of reference.
The 2D plane assumes the center of a spatial field, and "every optical unit appears to advance or recede from it"
Axes are created by the shape of pictoral objects
Frames in application windows create a frame of reference where "every object within the frame tends to be judged relative to the enclosing frame"
Arnheim, Art & Visual Perception. p.229
Arnheim, Art & Visual Perception, p.229
Arnheim, Art & Visual Perception, p.229 Kepes, Language of Vision, p.23
Kepes, Language of Vision, p.19 Directions are up, down, advance, recess. Ego-centered axes create latent background. If this holds true for a visualization framed by a computer, spatial relationships can be 'broken' vis-a-vis the self, using elements such as panning, zooming, profiles/avatars...decenter the viewer sitting before the monitor, or help pull the viewer into the screen.
Kepes, Language of Vision,p.83 & 51
Ware, Information Visualization, p.231
Correspondence of shape more meaningful than correspondence of color in "determining perceived motion"
Arnheim, Art & Visual Perception, p.309 This principle can be leveraged in decentering a visualization, and decentering can be useful in de-ephasizing axes and frame
Ware, Information Visualization, p.151: Perception as instant organization, then constructed into recognition. Kepes, Language of Vision, p. 45-51: "Visual representation operates by means of a sign system based upon a correspondence between the sensory stimulations and the visible structure of the physical world. Space-time events of the physical world must be translated into the relationships of color surfaces on the picture-plane. Man has gradually learned to order certain visible relationships of space-time events; that is, of extent, of depth, and of movement. The historical development of representation shows a gradual conquest of these optical relationships in the terms of the two-dimensional picture surface." p.67
Ware, Information Visualization, p.166 (numerosity = we can easily see up to four objects in a group)
Ware, Information Visualization, p.166
Symbols can be pre-attentively distinct from others using these pre-attentive cues...as long as it's not overdone
Adding highlights to distinguish better than trying to spot the odd one out
Depends on surrounding objects - some elements are more distinct than others. Must be robust against visual noise
But we can still easily/rapidly perceive odd one out in a visual space
Weight increases with distance, isolation, size
In directions, such as in the upper and right sides of the composition, in vertical directions
Elements free of an anchor have more weight
Isolation increases emphasis
Arnheim, Art & Visual Perception, p.29.
Kepes, Language of vision, p.45-51. These optical units are seen as together in spatial configurations: organization and group differences, close to one another, similar in size, direction, shape, closure.
Arnheim, Art & Visual Perception,p.83 Good way to group and relate elements in the viz, but have to be careful to obscure as little information as possible
Ware, Information Visualization, p.203
New node, New node
Ware, Information Visualization, ch. 10
Spatial navigation, Requires perspective cues to provide sense of scale and distance, Potential metaphors as instructions include world-in-hand, eyeball-in-hand, walking, etc
Wayfinding, Involves information about key landmarks, knowledge about routes and landmarks, and cognitive spatial maps of distance, People are bad at finding relative positions of objects in different regions, but good at relative positions within a given region, User location and direction of view should be indicated
Landmarks, Should be enough landmarks that a small amount are visible at all times, Each landmark should be visually distinct from others, Landmarks should be visible and recognizable at all navigable scales
Ware, Information Visualization, p.355
Structural scales allow different levels of detail
Selective zooming: giving more room to data of interest and decreasing space given away from those regions
Multiple windows: overview/detail method. Good to connect boundaries of zoom with source image in larger view.
Rapid zooming: allows user to manipulate focus and context - even though they are not together, the user unifies in their mind
Ellision: parts of a structure are hidden until needed. Collapsing. Allows visual chunking
Ware, Information Visualization, p.362