Vernacular Architecture

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Vernacular Architecture by Mind Map: Vernacular Architecture

1. 1. What is Vernacular Architecture?

1.1. Resources

1.1.1. ICOMOS

1.1.1.1. VERNACULAR BUILDING -traditional and natural way by which computer house themselves -continuous process including necessary changes -continuous adaptation as a response to social and environmental constraints

1.1.2. Why is Vernacular architecture so important?

1.1.2.1. Economic, cultural and architectural homogenization

1.1.2.1.1. Mass Production that replaces traditional master builders

1.1.2.1.2. 1. Rapid and unprecedented growth 2. Pressure from competing high-value activities 3. Major Infrastructure such as superhighway

1.2. Questions

1.2.1. Why do places built in the past so often still resonate with us today? -I think it is because of culture, and the function of the building. -Culture can affect the psychological state, if one does not follow the tradition, bad luck might come -Because the function still works, building upon existing base can help evolute architecture into something better than developing something new with much testing.

1.2.2. SENSE OF PLACE -Vernacular Architecture can formulate through experiences, that is beyond the normal functions

1.3. My definition

1.3.1. 0% knowledge

1.3.1.1. Vernacular Architecture are local buildings that are influenced by environment, people and culture.

1.3.2. 50% Knowledge

1.3.3. 100% knowledge

2. 2. People, Culture and the Vernacular

2.1. Questions

2.1.1. Culture? Culture is a local pass down of generations by ancestors, that teaches their future generations about moral

2.1.2. Your understanding of Three levels of meaning

2.1.2.1. Low level can be seen as the neccesity for people that are using the building. For middle level, think it would target a small group of people that shows the things they own. In high level, it is more of a large group of people coming together with the same thoughts and ideas.

2.1.3. Why is vernacular architecture a reflection of local culture and tradition?

2.1.3.1. culture and is not all about arts and letters of the elite society

2.1.3.1.1. -Tells about they way how people live and feel -Values people hold -Traditiona and beliefs they have -Manners in with people people build their habitats

2.1.4. Vernacular Architecture

2.1.4.1. A way how people express themselves through the built environment

2.1.4.1.1. The typology of vernacular architecture has its does have a single meaning. Each vernacular building has its own definition.

2.2. Resources

2.2.1. Three Level of Meaning

2.2.1.1. First Meaning -Basic needs of a building

2.2.1.1.1. social situations and expected behavior, privacy and accessibility, seating arrangement, movement and way finding

2.2.1.2. Second Meaning -Materials used shows the family status of wealth

2.2.1.2.1. Community's or the resident's identity, status, wealth and power

2.2.1.3. Third Meaning - Buildings that contains spritual needs.

2.2.1.3.1. the sacred, cosmologies, world views and philosphies

2.2.2. Culture embodies the complexity of distintive

2.2.2.1. Spiritual

2.2.2.2. Material

2.2.2.3. Intellectual

2.2.2.4. emotional features

2.2.3. How will people adapt to their living environment

2.2.3.1. Through years of evolution, people have expolored the ways that makes a building last. For instance, pitched roofs are made to prevent water from ponding on the roof.

2.2.3.1.1. Technology is distrupting the traditional vernacular architecture. -Flat roofs with drains and 3% slope to prevent ponding on a flat roof. The traditional vernacular architecture is gone. However, it paves new way for type of architecture

2.2.4. Vernacular environment Should include buildings and landscapes, urabn or rural based on knowledge that is commonly understood and shared

3. 3. Climate and the Vernacular

3.1. Questions

3.2. Resources

3.2.1. Climate influences how people build their living environment

3.2.2. Different types of climatic belt conditions

3.2.2.1. Geographical latitude detarmines the climate of a location on a macro level

3.2.2.1.1. Desert

3.2.2.1.2. Arctic & Subarctic

3.2.2.1.3. Subtropic

3.2.2.1.4. Equatorial

3.2.2.1.5. Montane

3.2.2.1.6. Maritime

3.2.2.1.7. Contenntial

3.2.2.1.8. Monsoon

3.2.3. Micro-Climate environment

3.2.3.1. different people will find the most ideal topographical features suitable for their living

3.2.3.2. Feung-Shui Set of principles governing site survey and site selection,

3.2.3.2.1. For human habitation and for burials

4. 4. Materials, Construction and the Vernacular

4.1. Resources

4.1.1. Choice of building materials and construction process all embody elements of the vernacular

4.1.2. Materials

4.1.2.1. Manufactured

4.1.2.1.1. Brick, Glass

4.1.2.2. Natural

4.1.2.2.1. Mud, Clay, Stone, Grass

4.1.2.3. Materials are becoming more manufactured than natural. Since it is more commercialized and manufactured materials have better consistancy and reliablity than natural materials

4.1.3. Way of construction

4.1.3.1. Do you think different stages of materials lead to new

4.1.3.2. Building methods structure system and workmanship represent the wisdom of the individual or a group

4.1.3.2.1. This is how the knowledge is passed through

4.1.4. Building rituals

4.1.4.1. the process of construction has to do with many associated rites anrituals

4.1.4.1.1. From harvesting to the selection of auspicious days to the start of construction to the construction process, to the construction process, to the completiton

4.1.5. Building dimensioning

4.1.5.1. dimension of buildings must be congruent with the cosmos to ensure nothing goes against with nature

4.1.5.1.1. obtain the bless of a good spirit

4.1.5.1.2. best fortunes and lucks

4.2. Question

4.2.1. How natural does a material must be to consider a natural material

4.2.1.1. do unfired brick consider as natural or manufactured material?

4.2.1.1.1. The whole process of unfired brick is to put into the sun for drying process

4.2.2. Do you think manufactured materials devalue the vernacular architecture of traditional buildings?

4.2.2.1. Yes, I would think so because manufactured materials can be applied to many places. In addition, the material does not belong the that certain era. I would be considered as a renewal.

4.2.3. The dimension of the building is considered the most sacred aspect in keeping in touch with the cosmic realm. One cannot understand the cultural aspect of the building without understanding the dimensioning of the building. They are inextricably linked. Your views?

4.2.3.1. Dimension is more related to culture than material

4.2.3.1.1. Dimension should be based on the human scale.

5. 5. The Vernacular Landscapes

5.1. Question

5.1.1. Landscape Nature vs man-made

5.1.1.1. nature does not have human intervention

5.1.1.2. man-made, have human intevention

5.1.1.2.1. -Spiritual -Culture -Aesthetic -Purpose

5.1.2. "Sense of place"

5.1.2.1. Man Kuk Lane Park is a modern "chinese classical garden located in a high density residential area in Hang Hau. Walking in the narrow streets of Hong Kong, your perspective is limited to only portrait views where you are very disconnected with nature. Man Kuk Lane Park disrupts this pattern, it connects me to nature. It provides an illusion to temporary escape from the populated city.

5.1.3. Define vernacular architecture again

5.1.3.1. Vernacular architecture not only involve in the basic of local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions. It looks into deeper understanding of different hierarchy where it might go beyond to spiritual aspects.

5.2. Resources

5.2.1. Man-Made Landscape

5.2.1.1. Nature

5.2.1.1.1. Trees, mountains, rivers, eath, sea that are not affected by human activies

5.2.1.2. Man-made landscape

5.2.1.2.1. cultural landscape

5.2.1.2.2. Helps with our conceptual understanding

5.2.1.2.3. Often blurred between nature

5.2.1.2.4. Built by people

5.2.2. Vernacular Landscape

5.2.2.1. unlike man-made landscape they are always created by professional designers or planners

5.2.2.2. Created by people based

5.2.2.2.1. tradition

5.2.2.2.2. Customs

5.2.2.2.3. They can be private or public space

5.2.3. Sense of place

5.2.3.1. guardian spirit of the place

5.2.3.1.1. the spirit gives life to places and determines their characters

6. 6. The Rural Vernacular Architecture

6.1. Resources

6.1.1. The Constitution of Rural Vernacular Architecture

6.1.1.1. 1. Rural vernacular environment consists of the most rudimentary types of isolated single houses or cluster of houses, forming settlements, communities, or villages

6.1.1.2. 2. The livelihood of these villages or communities depends on crops or animal farming, fishing, and the resulting social economic and cultural systems form the foundation of the rural vernacular.

6.1.1.3. 3. Consideration of how vernacular environments connect with the spiritual and cosmic realms

6.1.1.4. 4.  Building vernacular environments follow certain processes

6.1.1.4.1. Processes that are un-self conscious -People who build their environment largely following traditional ways adopted by previous generations without asking many questions

6.2. Questions

6.2.1. Christopher Alexander (1965) and Amos Rapaport (1969) argues that vernacular built-form is the most obvious and direct means of expression of a people and its culture, without having to go through a self-conscious process of thinking. C. Norberg-Schulz (1975) thinks otherwise. Is the vernacular process a self-conscious or an unself-conscious one?

6.2.1.1. self-conscious (adj) DEFINITION deliberate and with full awareness, especially affectedly so. ------------------ We think the vernacular process is always self-conscious. even when you choose to follow the tradition, you CHOOSE to do so. Also there is never full self-consciousness or unself-consciousness.

7. 7. The Urban Vernacular

7.1. Topics to look at

7.1.1. 1. What buildings constitute the urban vernacular

7.1.2. 2. How does the character of a city

7.1.3. 3. How do urban vernacular buildings and landscapes support daily life of the cities?

7.1.4. 4. What are some of the asian urban vernacular building types

7.1.5. 5. what are the process through which the urban vernacular is built

7.2. Why Urban Vernacular

7.2.1. city as a cultural milieu

7.2.1.1. Driving force that contributors to the Urban Fabric

7.2.1.2. Multiplicity of purpose serving the daily lives of the ordinary people

7.3. Spontaneous Activity -It is part of the process of Urban Vernacular

7.3.1. Do you believe that spontaneous acts upon Professionals such as designers or they are defined by the people?

7.4. The solidity of vernacular architecture form of specific place is negative correlate with the density of cultural layer. In another word, the more cultural layer that a specific place containing, the more diversified form of architecture can be considered as vernacular. Do you agree?

7.4.1. I would think the more cultural layer that impacts in a specific place would turn into a melting pot overtime. As a result, i believe that new types of vernacular would appear capturing the importance essence of the architecture (ex. third meaning)   EXISTING + NEW = HOMOGENEOUS

7.4.2. Big cities are dominated by enterprise companies.

8. 8. Informal Settlements and the Vernacular

8.1. Resources

8.1.1. What makes a good informal settlement site?

8.1.1.1. Informal settlers usually locate their building in a unused site or site that are waiting for develpers to develop the land

8.1.1.2. Occupy tracts of land on the outskirts of cities

8.1.1.3. Sometimes these are unused and that they have not yet been built on by develpers

8.1.1.4. No infrastructures such as access roads and the supply of city water and drain services

8.1.2. Illegal

8.1.2.1. People do not own the land their houses are one

8.1.2.1.1. Can result in -destruction of house -subject to eviction

8.1.2.2. No property equity

8.1.2.2.1. -No asset to credit -

8.1.2.3. Utilities are tapped from other places

8.1.3. Govenrment provides new housing for informal settlements

8.1.3.1. -it does not necessary equal to good -new housing might not fit the informal settler's needs

8.1.3.1.1. One must communicate with what the informal settler needs, because this will help government to efficiently apply what is needed to improve these people's life

8.1.3.1.2. You cannot apply your thoughts for something and believe that it will benefit

8.1.4. Built form/materials

8.1.4.1. Materials

8.1.4.1.1. Reuse readily available waste materials -materials maybe scrapes of left over industrial materials -light and temporary

8.1.4.2. Built in a piece meal fashion

8.1.4.3. built within a complex culture of material supply and expertise

8.1.5. -Unsanitary - hinder children's education

8.2. Questions

8.2.1. Argue the pros and cons of the role of government to coming to grips to with giving such provisions to the under-privileged class?

8.2.1.1. -Pros 1. Provide the basic needs (water, education, security, health and electricity) 2. Improve the quality of life (From government's perspective) 3. Provide public spaces for inhabitants. -Cons - 1. The inhabitants would think that the government would intervene with their lifestyle too much, setting limits for their lifestyle. 2. Government intervention would be to drastic of a change to the informal settlements because they have different paces, it would effect culture. Government intervention: The government could insert few public spaces to show the small improvements of their lifestyle. This approach could expand through time if it does provide benefits to them in the future. Government should interact with inhabitants to discuss about the needs.

9. 9. Architectural Conservation of the Built Vernacular Heritage

9.1. Resources

9.1.1. Vernacular Heritage

9.1.1.1. How they live

9.1.1.2. We can learn about how people live

9.1.1.3. Represents people across the world

9.1.2. Architectural conservation

9.1.2.1. economic life of a building or group of buildings is extended

9.1.2.2. Retain cultural significance

9.1.3. Cultural Significance and value

9.1.3.1. people are interested in what happened and the stories behind genuine historic places.

9.1.3.1.1. about what happened

9.1.3.2. Story of place

9.1.3.2.1. importance about the place

9.1.3.3. Historical value

9.1.3.3.1. what the site has to tell about the course of human history or the history of a group or culture

9.1.3.4. Aesthetic and artistic value

9.1.3.4.1. intellectual or emotional impact of a place

9.1.4. Conservation approach to vernacular herritage

9.1.4.1. hard to conserve while adopting of modern standards of human comfort

9.1.4.2. 2 fundamental principles in making refurbishments to the built heritage

9.1.4.2.1. 1. the refurbishment must not affect the cultural values of the structure

9.1.4.2.2. 2. materials added or modifications are made

9.1.5. Paradigm shift in heritage conservation

9.1.5.1. bennefit of future generation based on

9.1.5.1.1. interpretation of the values

9.2. Questions

9.2.1. How can we help to prevent the loss of Vernacular heritage?

9.2.1.1. NGO such as UNESCO is already working to prevent further loss of vernacular heritage architecture. However, we need to prevent the deteriation of these buildings

9.2.2. is it consider conservation if the interior of the building is hollowed out while the exterior of the building is kept as is

9.2.2.1. No i do not thing it would be consider as preservation. The interior of the building is part of the building. As one part is removed from the existing building. There is a missing disconnection between the whole building.

9.2.3. how can one help prevent the destruction of heritage buildings

9.2.3.1. people should not neglect of the everyday environment and nurture about our cultural identities. If something is wrong, speak out about it.

9.2.4. Define cultural sustainability

9.2.4.1. Cultural sustainability is the way of architecture that aims to keep itself running without much of additional force to keep the culture going. In addition, I would consider cultural sustainability to strive for better living considerations the evolution.

9.2.5. With such indefinite and vague parameters, how can a vernacular environment be evaluated in terms of value?

9.2.5.1. tangible parameters: First, the building should be evaluated of its architectural value, in terms of function, form, which we generally go through. For example, architectural value of specific modern architecture can be revealed when comparing to another piece of modern style work. intangible parameters: Second step is about upper architecture.

10. 10. The Furture of Asia's Vernacular Architecture

10.1. Resources

10.1.1. Tradition vs Modernity

10.1.1.1. No society refer itself as traditional before the first few centuries

10.1.1.2. Tradition does not arise until -invention -articulation of the modern

10.1.2. Vernacular architecture is never static

10.1.2.1. takes on its own course to adapt to new challenges and forces of change

10.1.3. approach to the subject

10.1.3.1. preservation and conservation

10.1.3.1.1. perserve - keep safe from harm, maintain, keup up, guard against decay

10.1.3.1.2. conserve (preserve, retain, keep entre)

10.2. Questions

10.2.1. Discuss the term "modern vernacular" and its validity/ application to Kwong Yuen estate.

10.2.1.1. We think it is not meaningful for us to fall into the binary systems (modern/tradition, vernacular/monumental). Relation is more important than others. The terms vernacular and modernity are created around 20 yrs after the world war. We never say it is modern or vernacular when people live at particular time and place. And we have to understand the breakdown of the systems and value after the wars. The term vernacular and modernity are somehow overlapping (the way of making the towers and the way of living in the public space come as a whole.). KYE is inspiring in the way of opening up the ground and giving it back to the people for commercial/social activities. This project heralds street activities and maybe this is something missing from the frowned-upon (modern) tower-podium housing types.

10.2.2. How many generations does it require to be called "tradition"

10.2.2.1. I think we have to look into a micro-scale of tradition. If one does a repetitive ritual, then I would consider that as a tradition.

10.2.3. "Tradition... cannot be inherited and if you want it, you must obtain it by great labor."

10.2.3.1. I agree with this statement - have to repeat the culture - repetitive actions must be the same - Have to fully understand the content of the tradition