Language and culture

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Language and culture by Mind Map: Language and culture

1. Language

1.1. Saussure‟s theory

1.1.1. Language is a system of signs A sign consists of a signifier (the sound- image or the written shape) and a signified (a concept), in the manner that, they both are inseparably linked with each other (ibid)

1.1.2. Likens language and thought to a sheet of paper Believes that thought is the front part of paper and sound the back part. It is impossible to cut any of the two parts without cutting the other. In the sense that, in language the sounds and thought are inseparable

1.2. Crystal

1.2.1. Language is “the systematic, conventional use of sounds, signs or written symbols in a human society for communication and self expression”

1.3. Emmitt and Pollock

1.3.1. Believe that language is a system of arbitrary signs which is accepted by a group and society of users

1.4. Chase

1.4.1. Declares that the purpose of language use is to communicate with others, to think, and to shape one‟s standpoint and outlook on life

2. Sapir and Whorf Hypothesis

2.1. Built up and expanded by B. L. Whorf  and derived from linguistic approach of his teacher, E. Sapir

2.1.1. Suggests that a language determines and resolves the thought and perception of its speakers

2.1.2. The main idea in this hypothes is that every human being views the world by his own native language

2.1.3. Comprises two consistent and unified ingredients Linguistic Relativity The languages which are completely different in their vocabulary and structure, put across and convey different cultural significances and meanings Linguistic Determinism Models and samples of thought and observation and comprehending of reality are settle on, agreed on and found out by one‟s native language

2.2. Whorf

2.2.1. Called this view the „linguistic relativity principle‟

2.3. American anthropological linguists Edward and Benjamin Lee Whorf

2.3.1. Sapir – Whorf hypothesis is, indeed, a theory of the relationship between language and thought

3. Culture

3.1. Roohul-Amini

3.1.1. "Culture has multifarious meanings. Culture meant farming" It is used everywhere as rural culture, urban culture, American culture and so on

3.2. General view of culture

3.2.1. It is used in archaeology, linguistics, history, psychology, sociology and etc

3.2.2. Said that man is an animal with culture

3.3. Sociological perspective

3.3.1. Culture is the total of the inherited and innate ideas, attitudes, beliefs, values, and knowledge, comprising or forming the shared foundations of social action

3.4. Anthropological and ethnological senses

3.4.1. Culture encompasses the total range of activities and ideas of a specific group of people with common and shared traditions, which are conveyed, distributed, and highlighted by members of the group

3.5. Edward Sapir

3.5.1. Culture is a system of behaviours and modes that depend on unconsciousness

4. Elements of Culture

4.1. Each individual belongs to a special group

4.1.1. Language of a child is different from the language of an adult

4.1.2. The people in the North speak differently from the people in the South

4.1.3. The language of the poor is different from the language of the rich, even their clothes are different

4.2. (Roohul-Amini

4.2.1. Elements such as language, rituals, clothes, science, beliefs and values connect people together

4.3. Myth, Levis Strauss

4.3.1. Believes, in a language expresses universal realities in symbols The elements of culture are the entirety of socially transmitted and common behavior patterns, prototypes, samples, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought