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Emulsifiers by Mind Map: Emulsifiers

1. What is emulsion?

1.1. a dispresed two-phase system

1.2. an intimate mixture of two liquids that are immiscible under normal conditions, whereby one phase is dispersed in the other in the form of fine droplets

1.3. dispersed droplets

1.3.1. dispersed phase/inner phase

1.4. continuous phase

1.4.1. medium in which the droplets are dispersed

1.5. types of simple emulsion

1.5.1. water in oil (w/o)

1.5.2. oil in water (o/w)

2. factors affect stability of emulsion

2.1. degree of division of the inner phase

2.2. quality/ stability of the interfacial film

2.3. viscosity of the outer phase

2.4. ratio& the specific weight of the volumes of the two phases

3. Function

3.1. promote emulsion stability, stabilize aerated systems and control agglomeration of fat globules

3.2. modify texture, shelf life and rheological properties by complexing with starch and protein components

3.3. improve texture of fat-based foods by controlling the polymorphism of fats

4. What are emulsifiers?

4.1. Substances which reduces the surface tension at the interface of two normally immiscible phases, allowing them to mix and form an emulsion

4.2. compounds called surface-active agents or surfactants

5. How does emulsifier works?

5.1. Reduce surface tension between two immiscible phases due to their molecular structure

5.2. Emulsifiers have both polar and non-polar group which is hydrophilic head and lipophilic tail

5.3. lipophilic tail composed of C16(palmitic) or longer fatty acids

5.4. Hydrophilic head may consist anionic, cationic, amphoteric pr nonionic functional groups

5.5. These allow them to orient themselves athe phase interface & lower the interfacial energy that leads to unstable

6. Types of emulsifiers

6.1. nonionic

6.2. anionic

6.3. cationic

6.4. amphoteric

7. HLB-hydrophilic lipophilic balance

7.1. expresses the balance of size and strength of hydrophilic and lipophilic groups on emulsifiers

7.2. high HLB values(HLB>10) indicate relatively more polar molecules

7.3. used to describe the emulsifying properties of nonionic emulsifiers

8. Application

8.1. dough conditioner/strengtheners in bread, rolls, buns

8.2. crumb softeners in breads

8.3. cakes

8.4. confectionary products & coatings

8.5. frozen dairy products- ice cream

8.6. noodle & pasta