Characteristics, Stimulus & Response Theory, Learning is a connection between stimulus & reponse, Focus on cause observation & effect relationship, Students learn from stimuli & responses, Teachers gives students stimuli & feedbacks, No transfer of learning to other areas, Drill & practice approach
Behaviorists, E. L. Thorndike, Proposed Stimulus-Response theory, Connections of stimuli & responses form learning, "Law of Effect" Positive rewards strengthen the connection between stimuli & responses, B.F. Skinner, Emphasized reward (reinforcement), Extended to Stimulus--> Reponse--> Reinforcement Theory, "Skinner Box" experiment Inside a box, if a lever was pressed. then food came out. Through several trials, a rat learned to press the level to get food., Introduced Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement & Non-reinforcement, R.M. Gagne (Neo-behaviorist), Considered cognitive processes of learning, Ordered sequeence of learning capablilities-"learning hierarchy"
Criticisms, Not all learning is behavioristic, Mind thinkings & processes are not important, Cannot explain mind learning activities
Characteristics, Knowledges construct metally in mind as an information processor, It is a mind representation and metal models, Mental processes of how to think, perceive, remember and learn knowledges, Use cognitive strategies to transfer knowledges, There are short-term, long-term and working memory in human brain, Students remember ways of thinking (rules, patterns & strategies), Thinking is mind manipulation & representations
Cognitive Psychologist, J.S. Burner, Learners understand fundamental knowledge structures, Learners generalize knowledges and apply to similar situations, Transfer of knoledge is possible, Knowledges placed into structural frameworks is retented better, 3 modes of knowledge presentation: Enactive, Iconic & Symbolic, L.S. Vygotsky, Emphasized the importance of socio-cultural factors in education, concerned the inter-relationship of language development and thought, Development takes place if social enviroment changes, Cooperative arranagements fosters learning, Teaching is structured to students' self-learning, J. Piaget, Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Implications, Discovery learning, Can discover relations between knowledges, Mind thinking reorganization to fit new encounters, Learning process is more important then the product, Spiral curriculum, Knowledge is presented in 3 modes of knowledge presentation, Same idea is reviewed at higher level
Characteristics, All knowledge is actively constructed by learners, Knowledge is not passively received, Learning involves personal discoveries, An adaptive process to learn: Collect ideas--> Use ideas--> Construct own knowledge, Contruct knoweldge through assimilation & accommodation, Use existing knowledge to build new knowledge, Cognitive constructivism--> social constructivism
Constructivists, L.S. Vygotsky, knowledge direct to further cognitive development., Culture is the main determinant of cognitive development, Stress on actual mechanism of development, Knowledge is internalized by social activities (eg. mediation), J. Piaget, Introduce the constructivist theory of knowing, Interact with envoironment, knowledge is established and mentally constructed, interested in epistemology, Piaget's cognitive-developmental theories
Implications, Reject traditional teacher dominant teaching methods, Social interaction between teachers & students, Constructivist teachers give directions to guide students to discuss, By classroom discussion, students gain the skills of knowledge construction, Create a classroom environment for students to construct knowledges under individual social basis, develop students' creative thinking
Visual Basic 2008 Express (Computer Studies)
R. M. Gange's "Nine Events of Instruction", 1. Gain attention 2. Inform learner of objectives 3. Stimulate recall of prior learning 4. Present stimulus material 5. Provide learner guidance 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance retention transfer
Use of Computer Resources
Use of Intelligent Tutorials Systems
Use of Reusable Learning Objects
Use of Interactive Learning Objects
Use of Cognitive Tools
Inquiries and Problems Solving Approach
Student Centered Learning Environments
Use of On-line Collaboration Technology to build up knowledge
Use of WebQuest and ActiveLesson Approaches
the format of instructional materials has a direct effect on the performance of the learners using those materials.
ADDIE process(The Most Common One), Analyze Phase, analyze learner characteristics, task to be learned, etc., Design Phase, develop learning objectives, choose an instructional approach, Develop Phase, create instructional or training materials, Implement Phase, create instructional or training materials, Evaluate Phase, make sure the materials achieved the desired goals
Rapid prototyping, An adaptation to the ADDIE model, through an iterative process the verification of the design documents saves time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix.
The Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model, The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction., "Components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes"