Development and Teaching

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Development and Teaching by Mind Map: Development and Teaching

1. What is the "self"? Why is finding the "self" important in the learning experience?

1.1. Erikson's psychological theory

1.1.1. 8 stages of psychosocial development

1.1.1.1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1 Y)

1.1.1.1.1. Helpful: bonding through nurturing caregiving

1.1.1.2. Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt (1-3 Y)

1.1.1.2.1. Helpful: provide opportunities to express independence

1.1.1.3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 Y)

1.1.1.3.1. helpful: allow decisions and choices + respective consequences

1.1.1.4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 Y)

1.1.1.4.1. Helpful: realistic self evaluation of abilities on challenging but attainable tasks

1.1.1.5. Identity vs Role Confusion (adolescence)

1.1.1.5.1. Helpful: opportunities to realistically explore different roles and life paths

1.1.1.6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood)

1.1.1.6.1. Helpful: provide examples of successful, meaningful relationships

1.1.1.7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (mid-adulthood)

1.1.1.7.1. Helpful: help younger generations develop and lead useful lives

1.1.1.8. Integrity vs Despair (late adulthood)

1.1.1.8.1. Helpful: evaluate from broader, holistic perspective

1.2. Self: "conscious reflection of who we are and what we represent; our identity."

1.3. identity development/formation is argued to be the biggest transition and challenge for adolescents

1.3.1. desire to fit in

1.3.1.1. feeling different leads to a feeling of "needing" to change or that "something is wrong with me"

1.3.1.1.1. self-destructive behaviour often results

1.3.2. confusion over who they are vs. who they're "supposed to be"

1.3.2.1. held to ideals, expectations that may produce internal conflict

1.4. Culturally responsive

1.4.1. what defines the "self" differs by cultures

1.4.1.1. important for teachers to teach children how to not stereotype or "judge" by what is seen at face value; must teach students to be "global citizens" (i.e. realizing that all nations and cultures are inherently inter-connected and related)

1.4.1.2. must practice the skill of seeing through different perspectives; must teach students to be aware that differences do not mean "wrong" and should not be feared

1.4.1.3. must be accepting and inclusive of all cultures and differences within the classroom and community

1.4.2. Dealing positively with diversity within the classroom

1.4.2.1. Vercillo (2012): different races, sexual orientations, religions experienced within the  modern-day classroom

1.4.2.2. Must be recognized and discussed to ensure healthy self and identity formation

1.4.2.2.1. teachers should emphasize through their teaching practices that diversity is expected and that we can learn from each other's differences; that differences are good; that we do not have to "be like everyone else" but rather that we should stay true to ourselves and be who we want to be

1.5. Enhancing self-esteem/self-concept does not mean happiness

1.5.1. teachers must model to and teach students how to be mindful and make wise conscious decisions and reasoned choices (i.e. thinking before you act)

1.5.1.1. positive outcomes from mindful choices is what leads to happiness and increase in self esteem

1.5.1.2. teachers should introduce students to mindfulness

1.5.1.2.1. activities are available to incorporate into the classroom. For example:http://www.cosmickids.com/mindfulness-activities-kids/

1.5.2. teachers must work to create a safe, secure, inclusive, and positive classroom atmosphere and community

1.5.2.1. ensuring that students feel welcomed and included, and that their thoughts, actions, and talents/strengths are worthy in value, will help in increasing self esteem

1.5.2.1.1. self esteem is very dependent on social aspects of a child's life

1.6. Need for a more holistic approach to teaching and ensuring positive development of our students

1.6.1. We have to consider the stage of development that each child is in

1.6.2. we must inspire children to explore beyond their comfort zones and to "dream big"; to become innovative thinkers and to be analytical, critical and independent in their thinking; to form their own opinions, values, and decisions; to learn from their mistakes

1.6.2.1. healthy coping strategies and emotion regulation techniques are required to teach; these will help students later on in their development

1.6.3. Need to be flexible, adaptable, fair, and creative  in our teaching approaches

1.6.3.1. must realize that not all children are exactly the same even though they all go through the same developmental stages

2. Areas of development

2.1. Cognitive/Academic

2.1.1. understanding how and why learning occurs or does not occur

2.1.1.1. understanding how learning changes over time

2.1.1.2. if teachers do not understand learning processes and cognitive development then teaching will be ineffective

2.1.1.2.1. teachers will not understand or recognize why students can/cannot manipulate information or grasp a particular concept

2.1.2. cognitive skills and concepts learned in early education are critical

2.1.2.1. set the foundation for other concepts learned later on in development

2.1.3. executive cognitive functioning

2.1.3.1. young students learn tools and strategies form the modelling of teachers; older students think for themselves and come up with more complex recall-memory strategies than just rehearsal, such as acronyms

2.1.4. teachers are to assist students in switching from simpler memory strategies to more complex and effective ones as they mature and develop

2.1.4.1. teachers are always modelling behaviour

2.1.4.1.1. this requires teachers to be educated in child development and psychology so ensure that they are properly informed and up to date on the latest research and instruction approaches to compliment development

2.1.5. innate curiosity

2.1.5.1. children are naturally curious; teachers must teach in a way that supports and enhances this curiosity

2.1.5.1.1. curiosity acts as motivation that drives the learning and exploration process

2.1.5.1.2. children are always learning from their environment and modelling the behaviour of "older" people that they see

2.1.5.2. the driving force to learning and growing

2.1.5.3. adaptation

2.1.5.3.1. children need to learn that adaptation and change are normal parts of live and can be managed

2.2. Social/Personal

2.2.1. fostering of relationships

2.2.1.1. friendships, intimacy, dating

2.2.2. viewing themselves as an individual within society

2.2.2.1. who am I? what makes me different? how do I want the world to see me? What do I want to do in life? Who do I aspire to be?

2.2.3. reflection and contemplation about future

2.2.3.1. can be a source of anxiety

2.2.4. rule setting, boundaries, understanding consequences of behaviour

2.2.4.1. important to reflect and be proactive, learn from mistakes is part of the growing process

2.2.4.1.1. mistakes are powerful tools in the learning experience, as they can teach students how "not to do" something and where improvement is needed.

2.2.5. fundamental psychological needs

2.2.5.1. self-worth

2.2.5.1.1. I believe this is an important element to the learning process; without a feeling of worth, I do not believe that students will feel capable or confident in their ability to persevere through challenges and achieve goals. I believe feelings of low self-worth hinder the learning experience and become an emotional blockade that stands in the way of optimal and effective learning

2.2.5.2. self-efficacy

2.2.5.2.1. making conscious and wise choices; teachers must take this into consideration (i.e. where a child is at in development)

2.2.5.3. self-concept/self-esteem

2.2.5.3.1. I believe this is a critical element to the education experience. Children have to feel capable and accepting of themselves. From experience, if self-esteem is low, this will interfere in all aspects of learning and development (i..e willingness to take risks, anxiety over challenges, withdrawn temperament, social interaction anxiety etc). If children understand and accept who they are and learn to love their uniqueness, then I believe not much else can stand in the way of them and successful learning.

2.2.5.3.2. teachers can enhance this aspect of development

2.2.6. temperament

2.3. Psychological/Emotional

2.3.1. self-esteem; self-image

2.3.2. feelings of worth; confidence in who they are as individuals and capabilities

2.3.3. mood fluctuations

2.3.3.1. hormonal; puberty

2.3.4. identity confusion/exploration

2.3.4.1. role playing activities, self assessment, praising student successes, group work and collaboration

2.4. Physical/Biological

2.4.1. "maturational change"

2.4.1.1. mediated by cognitive and psychological changes/growth (perception; thinking; judgement

2.4.1.2. contextual influences

2.4.2. not usually influenced by educators

2.4.3. genetic predetermined plan

2.4.3.1. may be hindered by medical/health impairments, lack of nutrition

2.4.4. brains grow with age; so does learning capacity

2.4.4.1. allows teachers to present more complex material and place more demands on students with age/developmental growth

2.4.5. learn how to adapt to changes, both controllable and uncontrollable, with maturation

2.4.5.1. important to teach positive coping strategies

2.4.5.2. mental health must be attended to throughout these big changes (i.e. puberty, adolescence, emerging adulthood)

2.4.5.3. teachers should offer opportunities for students to role play and discover their passions, and who they are as individuals (identity development)

3. Principles of Development

3.1. orderly and logical progression, gradual

3.2. genetics (nature) and environment (nurture) influence

3.3. diverse; each child develops at different rates

3.3.1. all children go through the same changes but not at the same times

3.3.1.1. principles and changes apply to all students of all grades

3.4. quantitative and qualitative changes

4. Application to Teaching

4.1. teachers must teach appropriately to stage of development; material must match development

4.1.1. expectations, assessment, evaluation, and reinforcements should be specifically tailored to where a child falls in development

4.1.1.1. Keeping detailed journals and artifact pieces of a child's progress and/or difficulties in development/academics is essential for teachers to participate in

4.1.1.1.1. this will help them identify any areas of concern that may be needed to attended to by a specially educated professional

4.2. time and practice for mastery of concepts

4.2.1. numerous and diverse activities and opportunities for students to strengthen specific developmental skills (i.e. such as problem solving, critical reflection, theory of mind)

4.3. goal is to improve how students know, as well as how much they know

4.4. except different learning and developmental rates; not all students will grasp a concept at the same speed

4.4.1. important to be patient and persistent in teaching approaches and strategies

4.4.1.1. provide multiple avenues for learning (i.e. differentiated instruction)

4.5. teachers must be aware of their influence on students, and of their power to stand as a role model

4.5.1. teachers possess the ability to positively or negatively affect how much of each student's academic and social potential is acknowledged

4.6. must be aware of societal influences

4.6.1. always learning about people, life, and society; always experiencing new things

4.6.1.1. required to effectively and respectively interact with people

4.6.2. social beings by nature; we need to have human contact/interaction

4.6.2.1. emotional + motivational + cognitive influences

4.6.2.1.1. these factors also determine our social skills

4.6.2.1.2. a teacher must not forget about the emotional/personal/psychological/social development of their children; if these areas are impaired then so is learning; the relationship is mutual and co-dependent

4.6.2.2. need to adjust to the social demands of school

4.6.2.3. neet to get along with others

4.6.2.4. need to conduct ourselves according to the routines and conventions of school