Jazz Timeline

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Jazz Timeline by Mind Map: Jazz Timeline

1. Roots of Jazz

1.1. Blues

1.1.1. Characteristics Composers/Performers Bessie Smith (aka Empress of  the Blues) Ma Rainey (aka  Mother of the Blues) W.C. Handy (aka Father of the Blues)

1.1.2. Country blues was the earliest style of blues originating from  the field holler. It was a way for African Americans to express their feelings of oppression through music. single male musician accompanied by a guitar, loose, improvisatory style bent notes, blue notes, blues scale

1.1.3. Vaudeville (Classic) Blues was born out of country blues when the style of music became more mainstream. female singer accompanied by a small band, performed in black theaters in the 1910s and 1920s. 12 bar stanzas, written out harmonic progressions blue notes, bent notes, blues scale, lyrics about hard times, relationships, etc.

1.2. Ragtime

1.2.1. Characteristics Composers/Performers Scott Joplin Wilbur Sweatman James Reese Europe

1.2.2. A piano style that featured a steady beat like a march in one hand and a syncopated melody in the other hand.  This style was of a straight beat against  a syncopated melody was also used in orchestras as well as marching bands.

1.3. Brass Bands

1.3.1. Characteristics Composers/Performers J.P. Sousa

1.3.2. The brass band was a practical alternative to the symphony orchestra for African American musicians to develop their musical skills.  Brass bands played for funerals, parades, bars, concert halls, and festivals tubas, trombones, trumpets, clarinets, saxophones, snare drums, bass drums duple meter for easy marching

2. The First Three Major Style Periods of Jazz

2.1. Early Jazz (Chicago/New Orleans 1900-1930)

2.1.1. Characteristics Composers/Performers King Oliver Louis Armstrong Sidney Bechet

2.1.2. Based in New Orleans, early jazz was a mixture of Negro spirituals, the blues, African music, and other cultural influences. This music was played for entertainment including funerals. collective improvisation, polyphonic

2.2. Swing 1935-1945

2.2.1. Characteristics Composers/Performers Benny Goodman Glenn Miller Duke Ellington

2.2.2. Upbeat dance music that inspired dances such as the lindy hop and the jitterbug walking bass, rubato, steady rhythm

2.2.3. Big band stage ensembles

2.2.4. The Swing Era was born out  of the depression.  People flocked to dance halls and ballrooms to get their mind off of the financial hardship.

2.3. Bebop ( early to mid 1940s)

2.3.1. Characteristics Composers/Performers Charlie Parker Dizzy Gillespie Dexter Gordon

2.3.2. fast tempos, asymmetrical rhythms, complex chord changes tri-tones, flatted fifths

2.3.3. small group ensemble: saxophone, trumpet, bass, drums Bebop combos were just large enough to feature a soloist's improvisation with accompaniment.

2.3.4. This intellectual style of music was born from late night jam sessions at clubs such as Minton's Playhouse.  Swing band members would get together after work and play all night long, discovering new techniques and exchanging new ideas through music.  In order to weed out outsiders, the musicians would prove themselves worthy by speeding up the tempos and modifying traditional music by changing the chords and rhythms.