Bonding and structure

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Bonding and structure by Mind Map: Bonding and structure

1. Bonding

1.1. Ionic bonds

1.1.1. involved metals and non-metals

1.1.2. exist in compounds only

1.1.3. meaning the electrostatic attraction betwwen cations and anions in an ionic compounds

1.1.4. Formation By rransfer of electrons from metal atom to non-metal atom atoms lose or gain electrons to attain the stable electronic arrangement of noble gases lose electrons gain electrons

1.1.5. nature of bond Electrostatic Non-directional

1.1.6. Constituent particles in the resultant structure Ions

1.2. Metallic bonds

1.2.1. involved metals only Metals are good conductors of the electricity because they have delocalized electrons

1.2.2. exist in elements only

1.2.3. meaning the electrostatic attraction between the metal ions and the delocalized electrons

1.2.4. Formation The valence shell electrons become delocalized, forming a sea of electrons surrounding the metal ions In a metal, each atom gives up its electrons in the outermost shell and becomes a cation

1.2.5. nature of bond Elecrostatic Non-directonal

1.2.6. Constituent particles in the resultant structure Atoms

1.3. Covalent bonds

1.3.1. involved non-metals only

1.3.2. exist in elements and compounds

1.3.3. Formation By sharing of electrons between atoms of non-metals Atoms of non-metals share with each other in order to attain the stable electronic arrangement if noble gases

1.3.4. nature of bond Electrostatic Directional

1.3.5. Constituent particles in the resultant structure Molecules Atoms

1.3.6. bonds single bond formed when one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms multiple bonds double bonds triple bonds dative covalent bond When both electrons in the bond pair are contributed by the same atom, the covalent bond is known as a dative bond as strong as normal single covalent bond atoms that have lone pairs of electrons can form dative bond

2. structure

2.1. molecular structure

2.1.1. simple molecular structure molecules are held together by weak intermolecular forces ( or vander Waals; forces)only no chemical bond exists between molecules properties low melting point and boiling point soft substances Insoluble in water soluble in non-aqueous solvents Non-conductors of eletricity

2.2. giant structure

2.2.1. giant covalent structure properties Very high melting point and boiling point Very hard Insoluble in water Non-conductors of electricity (expect graphite) solid at roon temperature

2.2.2. giant ionic structure properties high melting and boiling point hard and brittle mostly soluble in water conduct electricity when molten or when dissolved in water

2.2.3. giant metallic structure properties most metals have melying points and boiling points good conductors of electricity good conductors of heat malleable and ductile most metals have high density