Tools of analysis; RATIO

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Tools of analysis; RATIO by Mind Map: Tools of analysis; RATIO

1. Leverage

1.1. extent of firm's activities financed by borrowing (externally)

1.1.1. Debt Ratio tells proportion of assets financed with debts Eg. Ratio of 0.55 = 55% of total A financed by  borrowing (L) HIgher Debt ratio % = higher riskiness of co.

1.1.2. Times-Interest-Earned Ratio (interest cover) no. of times operating income can cover interest expense Eg. Ratio of 4.24 times = recurring (periodical) income is 4.24 times of interest payments higher ratio -- more profit $$ to cover interest payment no. of times recurring income thats avail to cover interest payments

2. Profitability

2.1. - allow investors, creditors, managers to evaluate the extent of invested funds are that are being used efficiently - earning ability of company

2.1.1. Net-Profit Margin Eg. ratio of 0.06= every $1 net sales generates $0.06 of net profit (or NP margin =6%) high margin-- more net sales $ providing profit to biz and fewer NS $ absorbed by expenses

2.1.2. Return on Total Assets company's success in using A to earn profit Eg. ratio of 13% = every $1 asset ->profit of $0.13

2.1.3. Return on Ordinary Shareholders' Equity shows r/s between NP and s/o investment in co. Eg. Ratio of 13% = every $1 invested by ordinary s/o earns NP of $0.13

2.1.4. Earnings per Share (EPS) amt of net income per share of co.'s ordinary shares issued measures NP attributable to one ordinary share

2.1.5. Price-Earnings (PE) Ratio ratio of market price of a share to company's earnings (indicates stock values) high PE = invetors willing to pay more to buy shares of co. they think has good prospects

3. LIquidity

3.1. - ability of company to meet current obligations - ability to pay off debts

3.1.1. Current Ratio ability to pay its debts Eg. Ratio of 1.85 = every $1 firm owes, it has $1.85 of CA that can be converted into cash to pay its debt Desirable ratio = 2 --> more CA (than CL) that’s convertible into cash to pay off debts (depending on industry of Co.) the higher the better

3.1.2. Quick/Acid-Test Ratio indicates if entity can pay all CL if they come due immediately Eg. Ratio of 1.01 = every $1 of short-term debt is backed by $1.01 of cash/near-cash assets ability to pay short-term debts better measure(> current ratio) for liquidity

4. Efficiency

4.1. efficiency of firm in utilisation & management of resources/assets

4.1.1. AR/Debtors Turnover Ratio ability to collect cash frm credit customers Low ratio = 1) Cash tied up in debtors 2) Higher risk of bad debts Eg. Ratio of 7.53 = during the yr, AR collected on average of 7.53 TIMES Debtor collection period (365/AR ratio) eg. 48 days -- Average no. of dats between sale of product and receipt of payment = 48 days

4.1.2. Inventory Turnover Ratio - how fast able to sell off inventory - no. of times company sells average level of inventory during yr Eg. Ratio of 4.54 times = during the yr, company sells inventory on average of 4.54 times Stock holding period/No. of days it takes to sells stocks = 365/inventory turnover