Theories and Perspectives of Learning

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Theories and Perspectives of Learning by Mind Map: Theories and Perspectives of Learning

1. Short time usually for a second, 5 Senses

2. Behaviorist Approaches to Learning

2.1. Pavlov's classical conditioning

2.1.1. Before Conditioning

2.1.1.1. Neutral Stimulus ----> No Respones

2.1.2. During Conditioning

2.1.2.1. Neutral Stimulus -----> Unconditioned Stimulus ----> Unconditioned Response

2.1.3. After Conditioning

2.1.3.1. Neutral Stimulus -------> Conditioned Response

2.2. Skinner's operant conditioning

2.2.1. Reinforcement

2.2.1.1. Positive ( stimulus presented )

2.2.1.1.1. Behavior increases

2.2.1.2. Negative ( stimulus removed )

2.2.1.2.1. Behavior increases

2.2.2. Punishment

2.2.2.1. Positive ( stimulus presented )

2.2.2.1.1. Behavior decreases

2.2.2.2. Negative (stimulus removed)

2.2.2.2.1. Behavior decreases

2.3. Background of behaviourism

2.3.1. Learning is evidenced by a behavior change

2.3.2. Behaviourism is observable behaviours

2.3.3. It's called conditioning

2.4. Advantages of behaviourism

2.4.1. More effective

2.4.2. Paying more attention

2.5. Disadvantages of behaviourism

2.5.1. Passive students learning in a teacher- centred evnironment

2.5.2. Students lost interest in learning

3. Cognitive Theories of Learning

3.1. Concepts

3.1.1. Knowledge ( processes we use to proform a task )

3.1.2. Flexibility ( using strategies and changing )

3.1.3. Drive ( how interested are you doing something )

3.2. Storage

3.2.1. Sensory Memory

3.2.2. Short-term Memory

3.2.2.1. 5 to 9 bits of information,

3.2.2.1.1. It's limit

3.2.3. Long-term Memory

3.2.3.1. Personal experiences

3.2.3.1.1. Episodic

3.2.3.2. Facts & General knowledges

3.2.3.2.1. Semantic

3.2.3.3. How to do things

3.2.3.3.1. Procedural

4. Constructivist Views of Learning

4.1. Constructivism

4.1.1. Cognitive constructivism

4.1.1.1. Thinking & learning

4.1.2. Social constructivism

4.1.2.1. Social context

4.1.2.1.1. Is about working with other people

4.1.2.1.2. Group work

4.1.3. Approaches to teaching

4.1.3.1. Top-Down Processing

4.1.3.1.1. problem solving

4.1.3.2. cooperative and collaborative learning (group work)

4.1.3.2.1. Positive interdependence

4.1.3.2.2. Face-to-face promotive interaction

4.1.3.2.3. Individual & team accountability

4.1.3.2.4. Interpersonal & small team skills

4.1.3.2.5. Team processing

4.1.3.2.6. work together to maximize their own and each other's learning

4.1.3.3. Discovery learning

4.1.3.3.1. experiment

4.1.4. create/build our own knowledge

4.1.4.1. students are view as thinkers

4.1.4.2. produce unique and personal knowledge

4.1.4.3. active,discovery and guided

4.1.5. Learning and creating new knowledge from experience

4.1.5.1. Students learn by doing

4.1.5.2. knowledge is get through form personal experience

4.1.5.3. experimentation and investigation

4.1.5.4. problem solving

4.1.6. Interaction with others

4.1.6.1. cooperative

4.1.6.1.1. work with others (group work)

4.1.7. Active process

4.1.7.1. Learning is active

4.2. Constructivist strategies emphasize

4.2.1. situated learning

4.2.2. metacognition

4.2.2.1. how do I think

4.2.3. deep learning

4.2.3.1. how problem is solving

4.2.4. move away from what the teacher is doing approaches to learning

4.2.4.1. instructivist

4.2.5. students be active

4.3. Teacher's role

4.3.1. scaffolding

4.3.1.1. a way to support students understanding

4.3.1.1.1. giving support to learners at the appropriate time

4.3.2. Zone of proximal development

4.4. Encouraging autonomy

4.4.1. freedom

4.4.2. choices

4.4.3. check students understanding

5. Motivational Theories and Emotion and Learning

5.1. Motivational Theories and Learning

5.1.1. Behavioral Theories of Motivation

5.1.1.1. seeking rewards & avoiding punishments

5.1.1.2. Use reinforcements and punishment to engage

5.1.2. Cognitive Theories of Motivation

5.2. The elements of emotional experience

5.2.1. Emotion involves

5.2.1.1. A subjective conscious experience (cognitive)

5.2.1.1.1. Stimilus

5.2.1.1.2. short angry

5.2.1.1.3. cognitive thinking

5.2.1.1.4. Emotions: - shake -sweat -freeze -heart beaks faster

5.2.1.1.5. affect your behaviour

5.2.1.1.6. maybe cry

5.2.1.2. Badily arousal (physiological)

5.2.1.3. characteristic overt expressions (behavioral)

5.3. emotional environment in the classroom

5.3.1. the behaviour of the teacher and learners

5.3.1.1. physical experience of the learners

5.3.1.1.1. activities that the learners engage in

5.4. Emotional intelligence

5.4.1. try to control your feeling

5.4.2. manage your own emotions

5.4.3. handle interpersonal matters effecively

5.4.4. self awareness

5.4.5. self regulation

5.4.6. motivation

5.4.7. empathy

5.4.8. social skills

5.5. The role of emotions in learnng

5.5.1. emotions must be recognized

5.5.2. emotions drive attention,memory & behaviour

6. Learning Styles

6.1. Honey-Mumford Model

6.1.1. Four Learning Styles

6.1.1.1. Enthusiastic learning style

6.1.1.1.1. learn by doing

6.1.1.1.2. experiences

6.1.1.1.3. activities

6.1.1.1.4. work in groups

6.1.1.1.5. enthusiastic

6.1.1.1.6. get bored by repetition

6.1.1.2. Imaginative learning style

6.1.1.2.1. use imagination

6.1.1.2.2. supportive

6.1.1.2.3. oriented to relationships with people

6.1.1.2.4. can't push until ready

6.1.1.2.5. creates with emotions

6.1.1.3. Practical learning style

6.1.1.3.1. problem solving

6.1.1.3.2. unemotional

6.1.1.3.3. use reason, logic to meet goals, take actions

6.1.1.3.4. use data, books,theories

6.1.1.3.5. take action on tasks

6.1.1.4. Logical learning style

6.1.1.4.1. good theory builder, planner

6.1.1.4.2. put ideas together to form a new model

6.1.1.4.3. follows a plan

6.1.1.4.4. logical, analyzes ideas

6.2. Neuro-Linguisti Programmingc

6.2.1. Three Learning Style

6.2.1.1. Visual Learners

6.2.1.1.1. learn by seeing

6.2.1.1.2. hand movements

6.2.1.1.3. poster,diagrams,graphs

6.2.1.2. Auditory Learners

6.2.1.2.1. learn by listening

6.2.1.2.2. good memory

6.2.1.2.3. like repetition & summary

6.2.1.2.4. audio tapes, discussion, stories

6.2.1.3. Kinaesthetic learners

6.2.1.3.1. learn by doing

6.2.1.3.2. recalling events and associate feelings

6.2.1.3.3. field trips practical experience

6.2.1.3.4. physical acivity

6.3. individual learns

6.3.1. getting knowledge or skills

6.3.1.1. habits

6.3.1.2. strategies

6.3.1.3. regular mental behaviours concerning learning

6.3.2. teachers shouldn't labeling students as particular learning

6.4. process learning (step by step)

6.5. Match each students have different learning styles

6.6. not to label the students

6.7. inform students that the learning style is not a test

7. Theory of Multiple Intelligences

7.1. Bodily Kinaesthetic

7.1.1. Body Smart

7.2. Logical Mathematical

7.2.1. Number Smart

7.3. Linguistic

7.3.1. World Smart

7.4. Naturalist

7.4.1. Nature Smart

7.5. Music

7.5.1. Music Smart

7.6. Spatial

7.6.1. Picture Smart

7.7. Interpersonal

7.7.1. People Smart

7.8. Intrapersonal

7.8.1. Self Smart

7.9. Creativity

7.10. Problem solving in the real world

7.11. different culture

7.11.1. cultural & historical background

7.11.1.1. time and place you were born

7.11.1.1.1. raised & state of cultural or historical development

7.12. biological endowment

7.12.1. genetic or hereditary

7.13. personal life history

7.13.1. experiences with parents, teachers & others who keep them from developing

8. Experiential Learning

8.1. Act

8.1.1. Concrete Experience

8.1.1.1. What happened ?

8.1.1.1.1. ( doing / having an experience )

8.2. Reflect

8.2.1. Reflective Observation

8.2.1.1. What did I experience ?

8.2.1.1.1. ( reviewing / reflecting on the experience )

8.3. Conceptualize

8.3.1. Abstract Conceptualisation

8.3.1.1. Why did this happen ?

8.3.1.1.1. ( concluding / learning from the experience )

8.4. Apply

8.4.1. Active Experimentation

8.4.1.1. What will I do ?

8.4.1.1.1. ( planning / trying out what you have learned )

8.5. Active engagement

8.5.1. inner world

8.5.1.1. outer world

8.6. learning results

8.6.1. interactions between the person and environment

8.7. learning by doing

8.7.1. reflecting on learning

8.7.1.1. Mistakes are valuable learning opportunities

8.8. activity oriented

8.9. 'hands-on' learning

8.10. Conventional VS experiential learning

8.10.1. Traditional teaching

8.10.1.1. Passive participant

8.10.1.2. teacher center

8.10.1.3. unreal & meaningless

8.10.1.4. memories

8.10.1.5. not practical

8.10.2. Experiential learning

8.10.2.1. active participant

8.10.2.2. self movivation

8.10.2.3. real & meaninful

8.10.2.4. reflection

8.10.2.5. function change

8.11. Action learning

8.12. Using games are experiential

8.13. Six dimensions of learning experience model

8.14. The learning environment

8.14.1. Where & when

8.15. Learning activities

8.15.1. What kinds of activities is the best option for the people?

8.16. The senses

8.16.1. How will the experience be received of the learners?

8.17. emotions in learning

8.17.1. What is the emotional impact of the experience?

8.18. reasoning and intelligence

8.18.1. How is the mind processing the experience?

8.19. learning and change

8.19.1. what kinds of change if any?

8.20. external environment

8.21. sensors