Knowledge & criticism

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Knowledge & criticism by Mind Map: Knowledge & criticism

1. Scientific revolution

1.1. Middle Ages

1.1.1. 3 Stages

1.1.1.1. Dark Ages

1.1.1.1.1. barbaric

1.1.1.1.2. unorganized

1.1.1.1.3. uneducated

1.1.1.1.4. poor

1.1.1.1.5. counter urbanization

1.1.1.2. High MA

1.1.1.2.1. urbanization

1.1.1.2.2. crusades

1.1.1.2.3. more peace

1.1.1.2.4. better architecture

1.1.1.2.5. universities

1.1.1.3. Late MA

1.1.1.3.1. 100 year war

1.1.1.3.2. black death

1.1.1.3.3. climate change (?)

1.1.1.3.4. theology vs church

1.1.1.3.5. population reduced to half

1.1.2. MA universities

1.1.2.1. 4 faculties

1.1.2.1.1. arts

1.1.2.1.2. theology

1.1.2.1.3. law

1.1.2.1.4. medicine

1.1.2.2. learn Latin

1.1.2.3. Old texts translated

1.1.2.3.1. the New Learning

1.1.2.3.2. 13th century

1.1.2.4. Church

1.1.2.4.1. Doctrine of double truth

1.1.2.4.2. Dislike reason texts

1.1.2.4.3. God observes all

1.1.2.4.4. Funds the Universities

1.1.2.4.5. Censorship

1.1.2.5. Teach different views

1.1.2.5.1. but

1.1.2.6. Science

1.1.2.6.1. observation and experience

1.1.3. Cliché of the flat earth

1.1.3.1. not true

1.1.3.2. based on bad sources

1.1.3.2.1. information taken for granted

1.2. Discoveries

1.2.1. Multifaced ancient wisdom

1.2.1.1. Knowledge

1.2.1.1.1. Sources

1.2.1.1.2. Contradictions

1.2.1.1.3. Different 'utopia's ' of the New World

1.2.1.2. Multifaced New facts

1.2.1.2.1. confirm superiority of Europeans

1.2.1.2.2. Montania

1.2.1.2.3. Noble savage

1.2.2. Columbus & Vespuchi

1.2.2.1. Knowledge new world

1.2.2.1.1. from ancient books

1.2.2.2. New people

1.2.2.2.1. barbaric

1.2.2.2.2. Canabals

1.2.2.3. Tried to explain the new world

1.2.2.3.1. looked into old books

1.2.3. Impact new discoveries

1.2.3.1. philosopher did not know all

1.2.3.2. Antiquity not perfect knowledge

1.2.3.3. Superiority Europeans

1.2.3.4. discoveries

1.2.3.4.1. pre - history

1.2.3.4.2. post- history

1.2.3.5. anomaly marks

1.2.3.5.1. struggle make it law-like

1.2.3.5.2. change takes time

1.3. Descartes

1.3.1. Method

1.3.1.1. Theory

1.3.1.1.1. How can I be certain of anything?

1.3.1.1.2. Realize doubting is easy

1.3.1.1.3. Doubt everything

1.3.1.1.4. Recognition of imperfection

1.3.1.2. God gives us only true ideas

1.3.1.2.1. since he is perfect

1.3.1.3. 4 steps

1.3.1.3.1. Clear start

1.3.1.3.2. Divide into smaller particals

1.3.1.3.3. Simple complex

1.3.1.3.4. Reread and criticize

1.3.1.4. REASON

1.3.2. Worldview

1.3.2.1. All space filled with matter

1.3.2.1.1. Matter= extension in space

1.3.2.2. Sylestial clockmaker

1.3.2.2.1. God

1.3.2.2.2. Nature works as a clock

1.3.2.3. Soul

1.3.2.3.1. start button of the human machine

1.3.2.4. 3 elements (?)

1.3.2.5. Animals = machines

1.3.2.6. Disenchantment

1.3.2.6.1. from magic to machine

1.3.2.7. vs

1.3.2.7.1. Animistic

1.4. Bacon

1.4.1. Method

1.4.1.1. Aim

1.4.1.1.1. Utility

1.4.1.1.2. Manipulate nature

1.4.1.2. Genuine experience

1.4.1.3. Induction

1.4.1.3.1. e.g. heat

1.4.1.3.2. Exclude the false

1.4.1.3.3. Laws of nature can be falsified

1.4.1.3.4. From individual

1.4.1.3.5. Gradually

1.4.1.4. Use senses

1.4.1.4.1. Only trust own observations/senses

1.4.1.4.2. Seperate

1.4.1.4.3. Use instruments

1.4.1.4.4. Conduct experiments

1.4.1.4.5. Publish

1.4.1.5. EMPIRICAL

1.4.2. Who/Context

1.4.2.1. Shift

1.4.2.1.1. Mathematics

1.4.2.2. Galileo's teloscope

1.4.2.3. Academics at court

1.4.2.4. Bacon

1.4.2.4.1. Lord

1.4.2.4.2. General

1.4.2.4.3. Prove needed

1.4.3. Sense & Reason

1.4.3.1. Mind

1.4.3.1.1. = a Machine

1.4.3.2. Use the senses

1.4.3.2.1. with a method

1.4.3.2.2. with reason

1.4.4. Idols

1.4.4.1. Tribe

1.4.4.1.1. Temptations

1.4.4.2. Cave

1.4.4.2.1. Types of character

1.4.4.3. Marktplace

1.4.4.3.1. language errors

1.4.4.4. Theatre

1.4.4.4.1. false philosophy systems

1.4.5. Issues& Solutions

1.4.5.1. Skill

1.4.5.2. Legalistic

1.4.5.3. Didactic

1.4.5.4. Records

1.4.5.4.1. Measure

1.4.5.4.2. Drawings

1.4.5.5. Demonstrate

1.4.5.6. Publish

1.4.5.7. Accessible

1.4.5.7.1. Witnesses

1.4.5.7.2. Instruments

1.4.5.7.3. DIY

1.4.5.8. Senses

1.4.5.8.1. Vague

1.4.5.8.2. Not universal

1.5. Ordering Nature

1.5.1. Buffon

1.5.1.1. Complete history

1.5.1.1.1. of all living beings

1.5.1.1.2. of the earth

1.5.1.2. Notion of time

1.5.1.2.1. Species&nature change

1.5.1.3. Empiricist

1.5.1.3.1. focus on individual

1.5.1.3.2. step by step

1.5.1.3.3. inductive

1.5.1.4. Classification as a means

1.5.1.4.1. nature has a natural order

1.5.2. Linnaeus

1.5.2.1. Binominal system of nomenclature

1.5.2.2. Male & female plants

1.5.2.3. The Creation

1.5.2.3.1. Harmonias

1.5.2.3.2. Species do not change

1.5.2.3.3. Provided patterns/plans

1.5.2.4. Hierarchical classification system

1.5.2.5. Focus on characteristics

1.5.2.5.1. selective

1.5.2.6. Deductive & Rational

1.5.2.7. Worked from his Botanic Garden

1.5.3. Humans

1.5.3.1. Caucasians

1.5.3.1.1. Mountain Caucasus

1.5.3.1.2. Classification by skin colour

1.5.3.2. Classified like animals

1.5.3.3. Classified by gender

1.5.3.3.1. Female caucasion

2. Enlightenment

2.1. Science&Religion

2.1.1. Newton

2.1.1.1. Method

2.1.1.1.1. Hypotheses

2.1.1.1.2. Experiments

2.1.1.1.3. Observation

2.1.1.1.4. Calculations

2.1.1.1.5. Combines

2.1.1.1.6. Relates all his findings to God

2.1.1.2. Law of Gravity

2.1.1.2.1. Force between particles

2.1.1.2.2. 2 bodies

2.1.1.2.3. bodies practice a force on each other

2.1.1.2.4. Gravity the same

2.1.1.2.5. God is the force behind it

2.1.1.3. God =

2.1.1.3.1. infinite

2.1.1.3.2. absolute

2.1.1.3.3. omnipresent

2.1.1.3.4. Nature derived form God

2.1.1.4. God of the Gaps

2.1.1.4.1. Newton dissapproved

2.1.1.4.2. God as explanation for unknown

2.1.1.5. Alchemy

2.1.1.5.1. Studied biblical texts

2.1.1.5.2. Way to find God

2.1.1.5.3. Witchcraft

2.1.1.5.4. Promises the same powers as vegetative spirit

2.2. Art&Science

2.2.1. Alpers

2.2.1.1. Artists use obeservation

2.2.1.2. Paint what they see

2.2.1.3. Attentive eye

2.2.1.3.1. away from misleading world of brain

2.2.1.3.2. true pictures

2.2.1.4. Double fragmentation

2.2.1.4.1. Isolate the eye from the rest of the body

2.2.1.4.2. The seen is detached from the world

2.2.1.5. Painter

2.2.1.5.1. Stops the world

2.2.1.5.2. Still images

2.2.1.6. Dutch Art

2.2.1.6.1. descriptive

2.2.1.6.2. Use senses to paint

2.2.2. Critics on Alpers

2.2.2.1. Dutch more dependent on Italian art

2.2.2.2. she uses painters in her favour

2.2.2.3. too much emphasis

2.2.2.4. Not all loved Bacon

2.2.3. Bacon topics

2.2.3.1. what we see in the world

2.2.3.2. painter makes a catalogue

2.2.3.3. Natural history

2.2.3.4. fascination for the eye

2.2.3.5. manipulated&crafted nature

2.2.4. Microscopic method

2.2.4.1. closer look

2.2.4.1.1. multiplication

2.2.4.2. increasing visible service

2.2.4.3. taking a frame from the big surrounding

2.2.4.4. Manipulating

2.2.5. Dutch vs Italian/French

2.2.5.1. Description vs narrotive

2.2.5.2. Beauty=reality vs bible, antiquity ideal

2.2.5.3. Baconian vs iconological

2.2.5.3.1. Icon=symbolism

2.2.5.4. Knowledge to understand the world vs contribution mathematical, generalization

2.3. Encyclopedie

2.3.1. Classification

2.3.1.1. Social thing

2.3.2. Categorization

2.3.2.1. Act of power

2.3.3. New tree of knowledge

2.3.3.1. Used Bacon's tree

2.3.3.2. Theology

2.3.3.2.1. Smaller limited space

2.3.3.3. Philosophy branch

2.3.3.3.1. Bigger than Bacon's

2.3.3.3.2. Knowledge of God part of the branch

2.3.3.4. 3 Categories of knowledge

2.3.3.4.1. Memory

2.3.3.4.2. Reason

2.3.3.4.3. Imagination

2.3.4. Dechristionizing

2.3.5. Opponents (thought)

2.3.5.1. Propaganda against religion

2.3.5.2. Insulting the church

2.3.5.2.1. categorizing

2.3.6. TASK! see text

2.3.7. Ancient Regime

2.3.7.1. one ruler

2.3.7.2. forbid publishment

2.3.7.3. academies were the arms of the regime

2.3.8. Main work Enlightenment

2.3.8.1. Changed boundries

2.3.8.2. Reason above religion

2.3.8.3. All big thinkers wrote a part

2.3.8.4. The extraterrestrial (unknowable religion) wiped out

2.4. Scientific Society

2.4.1. Background

2.4.1.1. 1760

2.4.1.1.1. Rise of physiocrats

2.4.1.1.2. Enlightenment thinkers different ways

2.4.1.2. France

2.4.1.2.1. economic crisis

2.4.1.2.2. 3 parties

2.4.2. Turgot

2.4.2.1. Physiocrat

2.4.2.1.1. =improving society by economic welfare based on natural laws

2.4.2.1.2. Believe in natural order

2.4.2.1.3. Population F 3 classes

2.4.2.2. History

2.4.2.2.1. bad example

2.4.2.2.2. no value

2.4.2.3. Good position, influence

2.4.3. Montesquieu

2.4.3.1. 3 Kinds of governments

2.4.3.1.1. Democracy

2.4.3.1.2. Monarchy

2.4.3.1.3. Despotism

2.4.3.2. Human temperament

2.4.3.2.1. varied due to climate

2.4.3.3. Power should be devided

2.4.3.3.1. intermediate bodies

2.4.4. Smith

2.4.4.1. Natural order

2.4.4.1.1. State not intervene with economy

2.4.4.1.2. philosopher

2.4.4.2. Increase health

2.4.4.3. Agriculture

2.4.4.3.1. most productive

2.4.4.4. Colonies

2.4.4.4.1. Independent

2.4.4.5. Sympathy

2.4.4.5.1. =communication of feeling between bodily organs

2.4.4.5.2. Connects

2.4.4.5.3. physiological studies

2.4.4.6. Need for certainty and general laws

2.4.4.7. God=deceiver

2.4.4.8. Labor idea

2.4.4.8.1. effort in an object = raise value

2.4.4.9. Future look at economy

2.4.4.9.1. (Bacon looked back, natural history)

3. Romantic Reaction

3.1. Age of Wonder

3.1.1. Newton's colour theory

3.1.1.1. two prisms

3.1.1.1.1. white light

3.1.1.2. Goethe

3.1.1.2.1. framework black&white

3.1.1.2.2. Accessible experiments

3.1.1.2.3. Green=no primary colour

3.1.1.2.4. Against quantity

3.1.1.2.5. Search for relations

3.1.1.2.6. Observer experience

3.1.1.2.7. 3 Different colours

3.1.1.3. Observer objective

3.1.2. Science

3.1.2.1. Fear it takes mystery away

3.1.2.2. Kills poetry

3.1.2.3. New philosophy

3.1.2.3.1. Gives beautiful Truths

3.1.2.4. Keat against science

3.1.3. Naturphilosophy

3.1.3.1. Schelling

3.1.3.1.1. German Idealist

3.1.3.1.2. World is mindful, spiritual, imagination

3.1.3.2. Philosophy of Identity

3.1.3.2.1. We are part of nature

3.1.3.2.2. Nature is a product of us

3.1.3.2.3. = Polarity

3.1.4. See assignment for overview Enlightenment vs Romanticism

3.2. French Revolution

3.2.1. Burke

3.2.1.1. Revolution= barbaric

3.2.1.2. Pro Monarchy

3.2.1.3. King and queen

3.2.1.3.1. innocent

3.2.1.4. Sublime experience

3.2.1.4.1. overwhelming

3.2.1.5. Revolution based on abstract rights/natural

3.2.1.5.1. not related to the real world

3.2.1.6. Theory should not be opposed

3.2.1.6.1. rather derived from established practices

3.2.1.7. Society needs

3.2.1.7.1. Respect for hierarchy

3.2.1.7.2. Emotions

3.2.1.7.3. Aesthetics

3.2.2. Mechanic concept

3.2.2.1. Machine -> seperate parts

3.2.2.1.1. society-> everyone self-sufficient

3.2.2.2. State govern by elite

3.2.2.3. Everyone should be involved in the machine

3.2.2.4. Machine held together by cultural laws

3.2.2.5. Rational laws

3.2.2.5.1. no evolution

3.2.2.6. Romantics for revolution

3.2.2.6.1. against method

3.2.2.6.2. should go naturally

3.2.2.7. Organic body politics

3.2.3. Romantic view society

3.2.3.1. Like a body

3.2.3.2. Should reflect nature

3.2.3.3. Holistic

3.2.3.4. Everything for well-being community

3.2.3.5. Rousseau

3.2.3.5.1. Social contract theory

3.2.3.6. Burke

3.2.3.6.1. Partnership between generations

3.2.3.7. Novalis

3.2.3.7.1. Poetic state

3.2.3.8. Schleiermacher

3.2.3.8.1. Free conversation

3.2.3.8.2. Polarity

3.2.3.8.3. Self-Realisation

3.2.3.9. Schlegel

3.2.3.9.1. Erotic

3.2.3.9.2. Aesthetic

3.2.3.9.3. Polarity

3.2.3.10. Art

3.2.3.10.1. Productive

3.2.3.10.2. Literature