Knowledge & criticism

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Knowledge & criticism by Mind Map: Knowledge & criticism

1. Scientific revolution

1.1. Middle Ages

1.1.1. 3 Stages Dark Ages barbaric unorganized uneducated poor counter urbanization High MA urbanization crusades more peace better architecture universities Late MA 100 year war black death climate change (?) theology vs church population reduced to half

1.1.2. MA universities 4 faculties arts theology law medicine learn Latin Old texts translated the New Learning 13th century Church Doctrine of double truth Dislike reason texts God observes all Funds the Universities Censorship Teach different views but Science observation and experience

1.1.3. Cliché of the flat earth not true based on bad sources information taken for granted

1.2. Discoveries

1.2.1. Multifaced ancient wisdom Knowledge Sources Contradictions Different 'utopia's ' of the New World Multifaced New facts confirm superiority of Europeans Montania Noble savage

1.2.2. Columbus & Vespuchi Knowledge new world from ancient books New people barbaric Canabals Tried to explain the new world looked into old books

1.2.3. Impact new discoveries philosopher did not know all Antiquity not perfect knowledge Superiority Europeans discoveries pre - history post- history anomaly marks struggle make it law-like change takes time

1.3. Descartes

1.3.1. Method Theory How can I be certain of anything? Realize doubting is easy Doubt everything Recognition of imperfection God gives us only true ideas since he is perfect 4 steps Clear start Divide into smaller particals Simple complex Reread and criticize REASON

1.3.2. Worldview All space filled with matter Matter= extension in space Sylestial clockmaker God Nature works as a clock Soul start button of the human machine 3 elements (?) Animals = machines Disenchantment from magic to machine vs Animistic

1.4. Bacon

1.4.1. Method Aim Utility Manipulate nature Genuine experience Induction e.g. heat Exclude the false Laws of nature can be falsified From individual Gradually Use senses Only trust own observations/senses Seperate Use instruments Conduct experiments Publish EMPIRICAL

1.4.2. Who/Context Shift Mathematics Galileo's teloscope Academics at court Bacon Lord General Prove needed

1.4.3. Sense & Reason Mind = a Machine Use the senses with a method with reason

1.4.4. Idols Tribe Temptations Cave Types of character Marktplace language errors Theatre false philosophy systems

1.4.5. Issues& Solutions Skill Legalistic Didactic Records Measure Drawings Demonstrate Publish Accessible Witnesses Instruments DIY Senses Vague Not universal

1.5. Ordering Nature

1.5.1. Buffon Complete history of all living beings of the earth Notion of time Species&nature change Empiricist focus on individual step by step inductive Classification as a means nature has a natural order

1.5.2. Linnaeus Binominal system of nomenclature Male & female plants The Creation Harmonias Species do not change Provided patterns/plans Hierarchical classification system Focus on characteristics selective Deductive & Rational Worked from his Botanic Garden

1.5.3. Humans Caucasians Mountain Caucasus Classification by skin colour Classified like animals Classified by gender Female caucasion

2. Enlightenment

2.1. Science&Religion

2.1.1. Newton Method Hypotheses Experiments Observation Calculations Combines Relates all his findings to God Law of Gravity Force between particles 2 bodies bodies practice a force on each other Gravity the same God is the force behind it God = infinite absolute omnipresent Nature derived form God God of the Gaps Newton dissapproved God as explanation for unknown Alchemy Studied biblical texts Way to find God Witchcraft Promises the same powers as vegetative spirit

2.2. Art&Science

2.2.1. Alpers Artists use obeservation Paint what they see Attentive eye away from misleading world of brain true pictures Double fragmentation Isolate the eye from the rest of the body The seen is detached from the world Painter Stops the world Still images Dutch Art descriptive Use senses to paint

2.2.2. Critics on Alpers Dutch more dependent on Italian art she uses painters in her favour too much emphasis Not all loved Bacon

2.2.3. Bacon topics what we see in the world painter makes a catalogue Natural history fascination for the eye manipulated&crafted nature

2.2.4. Microscopic method closer look multiplication increasing visible service taking a frame from the big surrounding Manipulating

2.2.5. Dutch vs Italian/French Description vs narrotive Beauty=reality vs bible, antiquity ideal Baconian vs iconological Icon=symbolism Knowledge to understand the world vs contribution mathematical, generalization

2.3. Encyclopedie

2.3.1. Classification Social thing

2.3.2. Categorization Act of power

2.3.3. New tree of knowledge Used Bacon's tree Theology Smaller limited space Philosophy branch Bigger than Bacon's Knowledge of God part of the branch 3 Categories of knowledge Memory Reason Imagination

2.3.4. Dechristionizing

2.3.5. Opponents (thought) Propaganda against religion Insulting the church categorizing

2.3.6. TASK! see text

2.3.7. Ancient Regime one ruler forbid publishment academies were the arms of the regime

2.3.8. Main work Enlightenment Changed boundries Reason above religion All big thinkers wrote a part The extraterrestrial (unknowable religion) wiped out

2.4. Scientific Society

2.4.1. Background 1760 Rise of physiocrats Enlightenment thinkers different ways France economic crisis 3 parties

2.4.2. Turgot Physiocrat =improving society by economic welfare based on natural laws Believe in natural order Population F 3 classes History bad example no value Good position, influence

2.4.3. Montesquieu 3 Kinds of governments Democracy Monarchy Despotism Human temperament varied due to climate Power should be devided intermediate bodies

2.4.4. Smith Natural order State not intervene with economy philosopher Increase health Agriculture most productive Colonies Independent Sympathy =communication of feeling between bodily organs Connects physiological studies Need for certainty and general laws God=deceiver Labor idea effort in an object = raise value Future look at economy (Bacon looked back, natural history)

3. Romantic Reaction

3.1. Age of Wonder

3.1.1. Newton's colour theory two prisms white light Goethe framework black&white Accessible experiments Green=no primary colour Against quantity Search for relations Observer experience 3 Different colours Observer objective

3.1.2. Science Fear it takes mystery away Kills poetry New philosophy Gives beautiful Truths Keat against science

3.1.3. Naturphilosophy Schelling German Idealist World is mindful, spiritual, imagination Philosophy of Identity We are part of nature Nature is a product of us = Polarity

3.1.4. See assignment for overview Enlightenment vs Romanticism

3.2. French Revolution

3.2.1. Burke Revolution= barbaric Pro Monarchy King and queen innocent Sublime experience overwhelming Revolution based on abstract rights/natural not related to the real world Theory should not be opposed rather derived from established practices Society needs Respect for hierarchy Emotions Aesthetics

3.2.2. Mechanic concept Machine -> seperate parts society-> everyone self-sufficient State govern by elite Everyone should be involved in the machine Machine held together by cultural laws Rational laws no evolution Romantics for revolution against method should go naturally Organic body politics

3.2.3. Romantic view society Like a body Should reflect nature Holistic Everything for well-being community Rousseau Social contract theory Burke Partnership between generations Novalis Poetic state Schleiermacher Free conversation Polarity Self-Realisation Schlegel Erotic Aesthetic Polarity Art Productive Literature