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Alternative Media and the Public Sphere in Zimbabwe by Mind Map: Alternative Media and the
Public Sphere in Zimbabwe
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Alternative Media and the Public Sphere in Zimbabwe

Alternative Communicative Spaces

Not controlled by Zimbabwean Government

Platform for Prodemocracy Movements

Restrictive Communicative Space, Alternative explanations, political change, social change

Print

Independent Newspapers

Information and Communication Technologies

Internet, provide links to prodemocracy groups, SMS service to mobile phones, expand communicative space, counterpublic sphere, citizen based democracy, access, participation

Radio, use of foreign transmission facilities, alternative news perspectives

Grassroots Communication

Art

Plays

Religious performances

Music

Video

Word of Mouth

Zimbabwean Government

Control of written and public sphere

Alternative discourses

silenced

marginalized

isolated

Government influence

public opinion, main newspaper, radio station

Censorship of

Residents

Journalists

Artists, religious performances

Internet, Interception of Communications Bill

Legal Measures

Closure of independent newspapers

Central Intelligence Organization takeover of newspapers

Extralegal Measures

Arrests

Harrassment by Security Forces

Democratic Change

Sharing Information

Organized Citizen Involvement, Freedom of Speech, Hold current government accountable, Demand human rights, greater representation