Definition: The field of instructional design and technology encompasses theanalysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementation,evaluationand management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particularly educational institutions and the workplace. Individual involved: People spend a siginificant portion of their time working with media, or with tasks associated with systematic instructional design proceduresor with both.
ID Development, History, Instructional Media, School Museums (The first decade of the 20th century), visual materials/instruction, supplementary curriculum materials, The Visual Instruction Movement (1914-1923), Magic lanterns, Stereopticons, The motion picture projector, Instructional Films, The Audiovisual Instruction Movement (1920s-1930s), Radio broadcasting, Sound recordings, Sound motion pictures, World War Ⅱ（1939－1945）, Schools slowed, Military services, Training films, Film projectors, Overhead/Slide projectors, Audio equipment, Simulators,Training devices, Post-World War Ⅱ (1950s-mid1990s), Media comparison studies, Theories of communication, communication process, Instructional Television, Computers (1950s-1995), CAI, micro-computers(in the early 1980s), Recent Developments, Internet, Business,industry and military, Low cost for widely dispersed learners, Easy accessibility to receive instruction, Education, Distance education, Interactive capabilities, Increasing multimedia capabilities, authentic problems, learner-centered, CD-ROM, Intranets, Instructional Design, The Origins, World War Ⅱ, Training materials, Afterwards, Instructional problems, started viewing training as a system, More Early developments (1950s-1960s), The Programmed Instruction Movement, programmed instructional materials (Skinner,1954,1958), An empirical approach (Skinner et all, 1960), Behavioral Objectives, Robert Mager, Objectives include desired learner behavior, Conditions under which the behaviors are to be performed, Standards by which the behaviors to be judged, Ralph Tyler, Objectives could be clarified by stating them in behavioral terms, Objectives could serve as the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of instruction, Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Objectives could be classified according to the type of learner behavior described therein, A hierarchical relationship among outcomes, Tests should be designed to measure outcomes, The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement, a). Assess students entry-level behavior, b). Determine the extent an instructional program designed to teach, The Conditions of Learning, Five domains of learning outcomes, verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes, cognitive strategies, Nine events of instruction, Learning hierarchies and hierarchical analysis, instructional task analysis, Formative evaluation, summative evaluation, Early Instructional Design Models, Systems Approach (The 1970s), US military, Instructional improvement centers, Business and industry, Growth and Redirection (The 1980s), Cognitive pspychology, Increasing interest in the use of microcomputers, Changing Views and Practices (The 1990s), The performance technology movement, Constructivism, Electronic performance support systems, Rapid prototyping, Internet, Knowledge management, ID1, ISD, Component Display Theory, Limitations, Content Analysis, Focus on components, Individual/pieces/for passing exams, Not use integrated wholes, cannot apply the knowledge in a wider context, Lack of cognitive psychology, Prescriptions, Knowledge Acquisition, Content Analysis, Course materials, Course content, Course structure, Course Organization, Different levels of instructional outcomes, Highly interactive nature of the new technologies, Interactive sequences, Closed systems, Hard to incorporate and apply new and better knowledge, Phases of instructional development, Fail to integrate between the phases, Lack of prescriptions, Resulting instruction, Teach pieces but not integrated whole, Passive rather than interactive, Inefficient to use, Presentation constructed from small components, Need transaction wholes, Labor intensive, Impact of computerization, ID2, Components, A theoretical base, A knowledge base, A series of intelligent computer-based design tools, A collection of mini-experts, A library of instructional transactions, An on-line intelligent advisor program, Address the shortcomings, Analyzing and Representing Knowledge for Integrated Goals, Cognitive, Organization, Structuring of knowledge, Elaboration, Explicit specification of relations among knowledge units, Retention, Gagne's fundamental assumption, Extension, Different mental models, Requirement of the instruction, Requirement of the knowledge, Addressing the limitations of ID1, Teaching of integrated wholes, Teaching the organized and elaborated knowledge, Development of detailed prescriptions, knowledge acquisition process, Identify all the information necesary, Knowledge Representation, Classes, Retrieving the knowledge in various format, Artificial intelligence, Instructional decisions may be made, For ID2, Elaborated frame network, Types of fundamental frame, Types of elaborations, KAAS, Guide the designer/user in providing information about the subject matter to be taught, Consist of frames for different content structures, Know the possible links between various frames and how to propagate knowledge from one frame to a linked frame, Instructional Strategies and Transactions, Transactions, Classes, One-way transmission of information, Lack interaction, Discussions and conversations, tutoring, Simulations and micro-worlds, In ID2, No constrain on the delivery methods for a transaction, Transaction Confinguration, TCS and Library, Strategy Analysis, Information gathering, Prescriptions and Filters, Course Organization, SAS, Queries specific information about enterprises learner and environmental attributes, Guides the designer/user in strategy analysis, Provides filters and prescriptions to the KAAS, Recommends course organization and strategy, IADV, An Open System, Mini Experts, A large rule base, Each for relatively narrow decision, Coordinated and combined to make the larger decisjions, Open to new knowledge, Can be developed, An inference engine, Applies rules to available data to reach decisions or to make recommendations, Integration of the ID Phases, Implemented by intelligent design tools, Maintain a single representation of the data, Changes in one area automatically flow through to other areas, Create corresponding changes, Consistency and completeness checks are facilitated, More easy for Designers to change decisions, Close interconnections among the phases, Comparison with other Approaches, ID1 Expert Systems, Conservative appraoch, Represent existing expertise about instructional design in an expert system, Drawback, The state of knowledge is inadequate for the task, ITS and Micro-worlds, Difficulties, The inherent and the expense of creating systems, Over-reliance on discovery learning as a means of teaching
In Teaching and Learning, Settings, Course, Course Instruction, Nature of Instruction, Definition of instruction, A set of communications, Verbal statements, Oral, Printed, Other Media, Gestures, Pictures, Self-Instruction, Working on programmed materials, Studying textbooks, Performing laboratory exercises, Completing projects of various sorts, Purpose of Instruction, Learning Process, External Events, Aid the acquisition of knowledge, Retention of learned, Events of Instruction, Modeling, Reception of patterns of neural impluses, Gaining Attention, Use of stimulus change, Appeal to the learner's interests, nonverbal communications, Demonstration, Physical event, Picture/television scene, Executive control process, Informing the Learner of the Objective, Indication to not obvious objective, communicate the objective, Words, Pictures, Goal schema, Multiple objectives, Learning Outcomes, Adapt to different capabilities, Coaching, Retieval, Stimulating Recall of Prerequisite Learned Capabilities, Asking a recognition/ recall question, Selective perception, Presenting the stimulus material, Proper stimuli, Features, A variety of examples, Recalled, combined and used to solve problems, Semantic encoding, Providing learning guidance, A series of communications, Varies with the kind of capability being learned, Adapt to learner differences, High-anxiety learners, Highly didactic, Low-level questions, Low-anxiety learners, Difficult questions, Low ability in reading, Pictures, Oral communications, Skillful readers, Scaffolding, Response organization, Eliciting the Performance, ask learners to show, Reinforcement, Providing Feedback, Automatically provided, Outside source, no standard ways, Reflection, Retrieval, Assessing the performance, Reliability, Asking the leaner to "do it again", using a different example, Valid, Accurately reflect the objective, In a genuine manner, Providing cues and strategies for retrieval, Enhancing Retention and Transfer, Retention, Spaced repetions, Transfer, Setting variety of new tasks, Problem-solving tasks, Media, ID across different media, Research Background, Promise of multimedia learning, Verbal Only method, Positive side, Negative side, Multimedia learning, Definition, Deep Learning, Problem-solving transfer, Multimedia Instructional message, a).The presentation contains words and pictures, b).The presentation is designed to foster meaningful learning, a).The presentation contains words and pictures, b).The presentation is designed to foster meaningful learning, How does multimedia learning work？, Consistent with how people learn, The Dual channel assumption, Visual, Verbal, Verbal, Visual, The Limited capacity assumption, The active learning assumption, Process, Selecting, Organizing, Integrating, Methodology, Cases study, Multimedia effect, Experiment, Printed text and illustrations on a page, Words-only group, Words-and-pictures, Spoken text and Animation on a screen, Words-only group, Words-and-pictures, Results, Multimedia effect can occur across two different media environments, Multimedia messages were more likely than words-only messages for active learning, Coherence effect, Experiment, Book-based environment, Embellished presentation group, Concise presentation group, Computer-based environment, Embellished presentation group, Concise presentation group, Results, Coherence effect across two different media environments, Adding extraneous material hurt student understanding, Contiguity effect, Experiment, Book-based environment, Integrated presentation group, Separated presentation group, Computer-based environments, Integrated presentation group, Separated presentation group, Results, Presentation methods have the same kinds of effects across different media, Learners are more likely to be able to hold corresponding words and pictures in working memory at the same time when corresponding words and pictures are presented near each other, Personalization effect, Experiment, Computer-based environments, Animation with narration, Conventional presentation group, Personalized presentation group, Animation with on-screen text, Conventional presentation group, Personalized presentation group, Results, The personalization effect is obtained across two different media, Personalized messages may prime the conversation schema in learners, Conclusion, Good instructional methods can work across media, Nature of human learning, Based on an understanding of the nature of human learning, Media environments do not cause learning, Cognitive processing by the learner causes learning., Instructional technology serve as a tool that increases the power of human cognition, Teacher, Teachers' private theories, Teachers' private theories, Developed from, Observation, Interactions, Instruction, Inference, Four Major Areas, Learning, Students, Teacher, Technolgoy, Others, Institutional Influences, Knowledge of curriculum and pedagogical content, Methodology, Qualitative multicase study, Tom, Initial private theories, Computers: tool to impart knowledge; multimedia helps students' learning, Technology: immediate access to content and schedule;repeat lessons;replace teachers;, Student: reluctant to collaborate, Teacher: covering content and checking students learning, Initial design, Direct instruction, Drill and Practice, Final product and changes, Learning is an internal process, Authentic problem-solving; collaboration, student-centered, Eleanor, Initial private theories, Learning is a collaborative process, Initial design, student-centered, concerns about the colleagues, concerns on students' learning ability, Final changes and design, Insist on student-centered and collaborative learningdesign, Develop more trust in students' abilities to learn, Teacher role: facilitator, Nicole, Initial private theories, Technology: help maintain teacher-directed instruction, Student: not able to learn without teacher, Teacher: monitor to ensure learning happening, Final changes and design, little change, direct instruction, Jane, Initial private theories, Technology: supplement to teachers, Teacher: ensure learning occurred, Final changes and design, direct instruction, Reflection, Participants' private theories, Areas, Four areas, Learning, Additional two, Design, Educational changes, Sources, Individual beliefs, Institutional influence, Conflict between management policy and practice, Assessment, Prescribed by the institute, limitations to the shift to student-centered, Technology-based Instructional design, Expert Teacher's Thinking and Teaching and Instructional Design Models and Principles, Methodology, Case Study, Purposes and Questions, Background, Participant, Sarach, Setting, The school, Data Collection Strategies, Open-ended ethnographic interviews withSarach, Observations of her class with pre- and postinterviews, The teacher's notes, classroom materials, textbook, tests, and other records related to students' performance, Stimulated recall interviews, Data Analysis, Teacher's thinking, The Teacher's Experiential World, Experience as a learner, Abilities of the learners, Family support, Expectation set by teachers, Experience as a teacher, Collegial relationships and interactions, self-learning, The Teacher's Knowledge, Beliefs, and Theories of Action, Knowledge of self as a teacher, Facilitator, An individual with unique characteristics and biases, Profession, Knowledge of content, Cognitive, Critical thinking, Affective, Utilization of knowledge in real life, Problem sloving, Knowledge of curriculum, Curriculum designer besides implementer, Pedagogical knowledge, Knowledge of Students, Active role in the learning process, Knowledge of Context, Differences influence teaching and classroom, Technology intergration, Team teaching, Peer coaching, Parent satisfaction, Teaching Process, Planning, Course yearly planning, Unit planning, Lesson planning, Instruction, reflect in the midst of her actions, Make immediate professional judgments and decisions, Reflection, Microinstructional Design Models, Analysis, Design, Development and implementation, Evaluation and Revision, Results and Discussion, Differences, First-hand experience, Socially situated knowledge, Interactive relationship between Sarah and context, Similarities, Components/Elements, Assessment as source of change, Consistency between goals, instruction and assessment, Conclusion and Recomendations, Socially situated knowledge VS Research-based knowledge, Social context, Object of the design, Source of the design, Reflective view of VS Logical View, ID is a highly complex and spontaneous task, Identify design problems within the context of specific instructional situation, ID improved through social interaction or reflective dialogue between the designer and the context, Social and cultural construct VS Cognitive construct, Socially shared approach, Learning, The 4C/ID-Model for Complex Learning, Address Three Deficits of Traditional ID models, Task-specific constituent skills→Knowledge-delivery media, Critical distinction between supportive information and JIT, Recommends a mixture of part-task and whole-task learning, Complex learning, Definition, Constituent Skills, Horizontal Relationship, Vertical Relationship, Qualitative differencies, Nonrecurrent aspects, Supportive Information, Recurrent aspects, JIT information, Four "blueprint" Components, Learning Tasks, Definition, backbone of every training program, confront the learners with all constituent sills, performed in a real or simulated task environment, promote schema construction by inductive processing, Task classes, simple-to-complex, basic sequence of a training programme, Variability, Learner support, Product-oriented support, case-study, worked-out example, Process-oriented support, modeling example, Supportive Information, Mental models, conceptual models, what is this, structural models, how is this organized, Cognitive strategies, Cognitive feedback, JIT Information, Theories, restricted encoding of situation-specific knowledge into cognitive rules, Formed through practice, facilitated by the information available in working memory, Design of JIT information displays, Information displays, Didactical specification of the rules, how-to instruction, Knowledge prerequisite to application of those rules, Rule-based instruction, Demonstrations and instances, rules-demonstration, concepts-instances, Corrective feedback, promote compilation, Part-task Practice, Definition, Design of practice items, Practice items, Practice makes perfect, One relevant recurrent constituent skill, Repeatedly performed, JIT information for part-task practice, step-by-step instruction, Overtraining, performance criteria, accuracy, accuracy combined with speed, accuracy combined with speed under time-sharing conditions or high overall wokload, intertwined with the learning tasks, help to relate the recurrent constituent skill to the whole complex skill, Discussion, Used to develop training programs for complex skills, Not desirable to specify all aspects of the blueprint, Applies a mix of constructivist and instructivist appraches, whole,authentic, learning tasks, schema construction by induction and mindful abstraction, inductive-inquiry strategy/discovery approach, Limit the available media options for each of the four components, particular learning processes are best supported by particular media, Lead to higher transfer performance, Learning by Doing, GBS, CBR
Conclusion: The function of ID is more of an application of theory, rather than a theory itself. Depending on the learners and situation, different learning theories may apply. The instructional designer must understand the strengths and weaknesses of each learning theory to optimizie their use in appropriate instructional design strategy. There is a place for each theory within the practice of instructional design, depending upon the situation and environment.
Models, PBL, Problem Solving, Problem definition, Unknown entity in some situation, Have social, cultural, or intellectual value, Problem Variations, Structuredness, well-structured, ill-structured, Complexity, Problem Representations, Individual Differences, Familiarity, the strongest predictor of problem-solving ability, Domain and Structural Knowledge, Another predictor of PS skills, Also known as cognitive structure, Cognitive Controls, Metacognitition, Epistemological Beliefs, Knowledge is right or wrong, Multiplicity, Contextual relativistic, Affective and Conative, Typology, Logical Problems, Algorithmic Problems, Story Problems, Rule-Using Problems, Troubleshooting Problems, Strategic Performance, Case-analysis Problems, Design Problems, Dilemmas, Central Principles, Understanding is in our interactions with the environment, What we understand, The degree individual understandings compatible, Cognition is a part of the entire context, Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned, Learner's Puzzlement, Stimulus, Organizer, The goal of the learner, What is learned, Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings, Individual understanding, Collaborative Groups, Development of knowledge, Widespread agreement, Viable interpretion, Instructional Principles, Anchor, Learning beyond Assigned, Ownership for overall proble, Consistent goals, Solicit problems, Establish a problem, Authentic task, Complexity, Cognitive apprenticeship, Cognitive flexibility theories, The importance of context, Ownership of the process, Role of the teacher, Learner's thinking, learning exchange/interaction, information resources, support inquiry, not teach, Alternative, Learning community, ideas are discussed, understanding enriched, Collaborative learning groups, Reflection, Self regulation, Independent, Strategies for learning, What was learned, Best Exemplars - PBL, Learning Goals, Self-directed learning skills, Hypothetico-deductive problem solving, Content learning objectives associated with each problem, Problem Generation, Must raise relevant concepts/principles, Must be real, Difficult to create rich problems, Engage learners more, Disirable learning outcomes, Problem Presentation, Own the problem, Data presented not highlight critical factors, Richly presented, A basic question, Facilitator Role, Facilitator models, Challenge the learner's thinking, Comparision, Case based approaches, Use cases for testing one's understanding, Use cases as a concrete reference point for learning, Not focus on developing the metacognitive skills, Emphasize the content domain, PBL, Learning arises out of consideration of the problem, Cognitive apprenticeship, Focus on knowledge domain, Problem solving associated with that knowledge, Engage the learner in authentic problem solving, The learners have ownership of the problem, Focus on metacognitive processes, REALs, RBL, Predigital Age, constrained by static nature, difficult to address different needs, single medium, teacher-convey specific content, learners-acquire specific knowledge/skills, physical location, Digital Age, Resources, Static, Dynamic, Context, Externally directed, Learner generated, Negotiated, Tools, Searching tools, Processing tools, Manipulating tools, Communicating tools, Scaffolds, Conceptual scaffolds, Metacognitive scaffolds, Procedural scffolds, Strategic scaffolds
Theories, Activity Theory, Activity System, The subject, individual or group of actors engaged in the activity, The object, the physical or mental product that is sought, Tools, anything used in the transformation process, Actions, Assumptions of activity theory, Activities: Minds in Context, Consciousness in the World, Intentionality, Object-Orientedenss, Community: A dialectic context, Historical0Cultural Diension, Tool Mediation, Collaboration, Learning Theory, Behaviorism, Basics, Overt behaviors, Observed and measured, Mind, Black box, Response to stimulus, Quantitatively, Thought process, Ignored, Unable to explain certain social behaviors, Key players, Pavlov, Famous experiment, Food, Dog, Bell, Result, S-R, Unconditioned Stimulus, Unconditioned Response, Conditioned Stimulus, Conditioned Response, Thorndike, Connectionism, Law of effect, Positive reward, Negative reward, Law of exercise, S-R bond, Law of readiness, In given situation, Watson, Experiment, Albert-a young child, A white rat, Result, The role of conditioning in the development of emotional S-R, Skinner, Operant Condtioning, Positive reinforcement/reward, responses repeat, Negative reinforcement, Non-reinforcement, not likely to be repeated, Punishment, suppressed but may reappear, In Instructional Design, History, Behavioral Objectives Movement, learning objectives, specified, quantifiable, terminal behaviors, learning tasks, specific and measurable, Assessment, tests, Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction Movement, Early Use of Programmed Instruction, Individualized Approaches to Instruction, CAI, Drill-and-practice, Program developer-controlled, Little learner-controlled, Systems Approach to Instruction, Strength, Clear goal, Respond automatically, Weakness, Inflexible, Cognitivism, Basics, Schema, Existing cognitive structures, combined, extended or altered, New information, Three-Stage Information Processing Model, Sensory register, less than 1-4 seconds, Short-term Memory, 20 seconds, 2-7 times, Long-Term Memory and Storage, In Instructional Design, New models, Keep from behaviorist tradition, Goal of instruction, task analysis, learner analysis, Develpment, processes of learning, Computer-based Instruction, process information, receive, student input, store, retrieve, Strength, Enable consistency of learners, An exact routine to avoid problems, Weakness, Simplicity, Lack of complexity, May not be the best solution way, Constructivism, Basics, Knowledge, Learners construct their own reality, Learning, Personal interpretation of the world, Individual's physical and social experiences, Social negotiation, Situated in realistic settings, In Instructional Design, Open-ended learning experience, Multiple representations of reality, Contextualize, Present authentic tasks, case-based learning environments, Reflective practice, context-/content-dependent knowledge construction, Collaboration, Learner control, Strength, Able to deal with real life situations, Weakness, Lack of conformity causing problems, CLE, Comparison, Objectivist, Knowledge can be transferred, Constructivist, knowledge is individually constructed and socially coconstructed by learners, Model, Question/Case/Problem/Project, Problem Context, Performance Environment, Community of Practioners, Problem Representation, Authentic, Activity Theory, PARI, Problem Manipulation Space, phenomenaria, Related Cases, Scaffold Student Memory, Providing representations of experiences that learners have not had, Enhancing cognitive flexibility, Cognitive Flexibility Theory, Information Resources, Evaluated, Organized, Cognitive Tools, Problem representation tools, Visualization tools, Static and Dynamic Knowledge Modeling Tools, Performance Support Tools, Information Gathering Tools, Conversation and Collaboration Tools, collaboration, Social/Contextual Support, Cognitive Flexibility Theory
Web 2.0, Features, A paradigm shift, Users-Creation of new information, Provide powerful media production, Social networking technologies, Rich user experiences, support collective activities, In education, New forms of assessment such as digital portfolios, Use of Internet-mediated social learning spaces, New forms of collaborative learning, New models and methods for the design of learning objects, New models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers, New generations of learning management systems (LMS)
Handheld devices, Technology - Pedagogy, Others, Administration, information storage and retrieval, Personal Information Manageers, do not scaffold or support knowledge construction, merely replicate o traditional platforms, Reference, Just-in-Time information, do not go beyond information delivery, Interative, 'response and feedback' approach, drill and test, Microworld, Data Collection - Contextual/Constructivist, Scientific, learn more about context, Immediate feedback, Reflective, Multimedia, Location Aware - Contextual/Constructivist, Interact with environment, collaborative in nature, Collaborative - Collaborative/Contextual/Constructivist, knowledge sharing, make use of the learner's physical context and mobility, Collaborative learning environment, Example applications, TxtIT, SortIT
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