Restless Earth

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Restless Earth by Mind Map: Restless Earth

1. Volcanoes

1.1. Features

1.1.1. Composite Layers of ash and lava Lava is slow and thick Steep sided Lava Hardens quickly E.g Mt Fuji

1.1.2. Shield Made of only lava Lava quick and runny Low and flat sided Lava spread over a wide area E.g Mauna Loa

1.1.3. Prediction of Volcanic Eruption Tiny earthquakes Escaping gas Change of shape of volcanoes.

1.2. Case Study

1.2.1. Montserrat-June 25th 1997. It was a large eruption and 19 people were killed. -It is above a destructive plate margin. -Magma rose through weak points. Underground magma pools formed. -Rock above pool collapsed, opening the vent. Primary Effects Secondary Effects Immediate Responses Long-term responses

1.2.2. Super Volacanoes Features Flat Have a Caldera Cover a larger area Effects Thousand of cubic kilometers of rock, ash and lava. A cloud of super-heated gas and ash flow at high speeds. This will kill, burn and bury everything it touches tens of miles away The ash will block up the continents day light. This will suddenly change the climate all over the world. The ash will settle over hundreds of square kilometers burying fields and buildings. Example Yellowstone National Park, USA.

2. Plates

2.1. Oceanic

2.1.1. Thinner

2.1.2. Denser

2.1.3. Younger

2.1.4. E.g Basalt

2.2. Continental

2.2.1. Thicker

2.2.2. Less Dense

2.2.3. Older

2.2.4. E.g Granite

3. Plate Boundaries

3.1. Destructive

3.1.1. Oceanic plate meets Continental plate, oceanic plate forced down into the mantel and destroyed. Creates volcanoes and ocean trenches.

3.1.2. Two continental plates meet and smash together. No crust destroyed. Creates fold mountains. Sedimentary rock build up between plates and pushed upwards.

3.2. Constructive

3.2.1. Plates move away. Magma rises and fills the gap, which cools down, creating new crust.

3.3. Conservative

3.3.1. Plates move sideways each other Moves past each other or in the same way but in different speeds.

4. Fold Mountains

4.1. Case Study: Alps

4.1.1. Adaptation Steep Relief: Goats farmed- Well adapted. Trees and man-made defenses- used to protect against avalanches & rock slides. Poor soils: Animals graze on these areas. Limited Communications: Roads built over passes.

4.1.2. Uses Farming Steep uplands for farming goats that provide cheese, milk and meat. Terraced slopes used to plant vineyards. H.E.P Dammed narrow valleys used to generate H.E.P. Electricity produced used locally to power homes and businesses. Exported to towns and cities far away. Mining Salt, gold, silver, iron and copper were mined. Forestry Scots Pine are planted. After fully grown then logged and sold to craft furniture. Tourism 100 million tourists visit annually. In the summer, tourist walk, mountain bike, para-glide and climb. In the winter, tourists ski, snowboard and ice climb. New villages built to cater for the quantity of tourist. Ski runs, ski lifts, cable cars, holiday chalets and restaurants pepper the landscape.

5. Tsunami

5.1. Caused by the destructive margin.

5.2. Case study: Sumatra- 26th December 2004. Magnitude of 9.1. The wave was 30m high.

5.2.1. Effects 230,000 people killed or went missing. Towns and villages were destroyed. 1.7 million people lost their homes. Infrastructure was severely damaged. 5-6 million people needed emergency food , water and medical supplies. Fisher men lost their livlihood. Tourism industry suffered Plants cannot grow due to salt from sea water. Mangroves, coral reefs, forests and sand dunes destroyed by waves.

5.2.2. Responses Short-term In many areas local communities were cut off and had to help themselves. The authorities ordered quick burial or burning of the dead to avoid the spread of disease. Food aid was provided to millions of people, e.g from the World Food Program. £4.5 billion of aid was promised by foreign governments. The British public gave £330 million through charities, e.g the average Action aid donation was £84 . Long-term Reconstruction is still taking place. Indian Ocean tsunami warning system has now been set up. Some projects have been set up by charities to aid recovery and help local people help themselves to rebuild and set up small businesses.

6. Earthquakes

6.1. Case Studies

6.1.1. Features Epicentre: Vertically above the focus on the the earth surface. Focus: The point where the earthquake starts. Shock waves: Vibrations that caused the earthquake.

6.1.2. Poor: Haiti-12th January 2010. Magnitude is 7.0. Primary Effects 230,000 people are killed. 3 million people effected. 300,000 injured. 1.3 million made homeless. Several hospitals collapse. Secondary Effects Businesses destroyed due to being poorly built. 30,000 commercial buildings collapse due not being earthquake resistant. Airport and port damaged. Damage to the main clothing industry. Short-term responses Providing emergency water and medical supplies. Emergency rescue teams from numbers of countries. Temporary hospitals installed to treat the injured. People donated and pledged money to help the people in need in Haiti. The UN troops and police were sent to distribute aid and keep order. Long-term effects Money pledged by organisations & governments to assist in rebuilding. After 1 year, there is still 1,300 camps. Cash for work programs are paying Haitians to clear rubble. Small farmers are being supported. Schools rebuilt.

6.1.3. Rich: New Zealand- 22nd February 2011. Magnitude is 6.3. Primary Effects 181 people are killed. 2,000 injured. Hundreds of kilometers of water and sewage pipes were damaged. Over 50% of central city buildings severely damaged. Liquefaction caused lots of damage to roads and buildings. 80% of city without power Secondary Effects Businesses inactive causing losses of income and jobs. Schools had to share classrooms. Liquefaction made people and emergency services to move around. People mentally affected needed support. Short-term responses Cared for the most vulnerable people and ensured people were safe from dangerous buildings. Chemical toilets were provided for 30,000 residents. Areas were zoned to classify damage/cost of repairs. International aid was provided in the form of money (around $6-7 million) and aid workers. Long-term effects Paid $898 million in building claims Provided temporary housing and ensured all damaged housing was kept water tight. Water and sewerage was restored for all residents. Roads and houses were cleared of silt from liquefaction and 80% of roads/50% of footpaths were repaired.

6.1.4. Measurement Richter Scale: Measures the amount of energy released by and earthquake. 1 to 9. Mercalli Scale: Measures the effects of an earthquake. 1 to 12.