Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual To teach basic skills: reading, writing, mathematics. Transmit specific knowledge and help students acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis

1.1.2. Social Help solve social problems Family and church helps to ensure social cohesion Socialize the children into various roles (ex: behaviors and the values of society Key ingredient to stability of any society

1.1.3. Political Inculcate allegiance to existing political order (Patriotism) Prepares the students to become citizens who will participate in political order by helping assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order, and teaching children basic laws of society

1.1.4. Economic Prepares students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

1.2. Conservative Perspectives, Liberal Perspectives, and Radical Perspectives for the Role of the Schools

1.2.1. Conservative Perspective states that the role of the school is to provide necessary educational training for students to become the most talented and hard-working individuals by receiving tools to maximize economic and social productivity. According to conservatives it is necessary to socialize children into the adult roles for maintenance of social order. In addition, they feel as though through the curriculum the students learn cultural traditions. In conclusion, the perspective of a conservative is that the school's role is essential for economic productivity and social stability.

1.2.2. The Liberal Perspective is that schools provide the education deemed necessary for students to have an equal opportunity to succeed in society. They stress the importance of not only socializing students, but also the pluralistic nature of U.S. society along with the learning the respect for other cultures; it is important that a student can interact and understand different cultures so the student can fit into the diversity of the nation. In addition, the liberal perspective states that the student has socializing skills as wells as those need to enable the individual to develop his or her talents, creativity, and sense of self. In conclusion, the role of the school for a liberal is that the education is deemed to teach the student the importance of balancing the needs of society and to be consistent with democratic and meritocratic society. They want the students to be able become citizens who participate in decision making, so that all citizens receive a fair and equal opportunity for wealth, political power, and social status.

1.2.3. The radicals perspective is to preserve the society and serve interest of those with economic wealth and political power. The believe schools should teach the students from different social backgrounds for different roles within the economic division of labor. In conclusion, radicals believe that the schools teach economic, social, and political power inequality within the U.S society

2. History of U.S Education

2.1. The reform movement that I think has had the most influence on education is the "Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School" because during this period there were several changes that paved the way for public schools systems. Horace Mann had fought to establish free public school because he believed "schools can change the social order and that education can foster social mobility" (pg. 68). This period of reform also gave women and African-Americans a chance to earn an education which was a huge step forward for the US. Another influential person was John Dewey who led the way for curriculum that aimed towards the child's interest and development level. Although some may not understand or agree with Dewey's thoughts and ideas for education, but his emphasis that he put towards children's feelings, impulses, and interest "led to a form of progressive education". Another big change during this time period was the need for public high school and what should be taught to help the students succeed in life. During this reform there were several different psychologist and philosophers who was interested in this reform movement, each one gave their ideas on how to improve public school. This reform was big for education because it shaped today's public education path.

2.2. The Democratic-liberals believe that the school system should be committed to providing equal opportunity for all students. They feel as though each reform period progressed towards expanding larger portions of the population and to reject the conservative view that only those who were privileged should be able to attend school. Cremin believed the progressive era developed expansion of opportunity and purpose., meaning there were more students from different backgrounds going to school for longer periods leading to education becoming more broad and the social goals were focused on as much as intellectual goals. Cremin explained on page 83 of the text that US higher education providing a place for all who wants one and in the end proves that [US education] is one of the most educated populations in the world.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives:

3.1.1. Functional sociologist begin by examining how well parts are unified together. Functionalist view society as two parts: one part works with another to produce energy to make society work. Emile Durkheim was one sociologist that believed education was of critical importance in creating moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony. He knew that moral unity is the foundation of society, which would set the tone for how present day functionalist approached education. In a well functioning society, schools socialize students into the appropriate values and sort students based on their abilities. Educational reform is used to create structures, programs, and curricula that are considered advanced, rational, and encourage social unity.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory: This theory suggest that the society is held together by economic, political, cultural, and military power. Conflict sociologist like to emphasize struggle, by stating that students are should be selected by their abilities not by their social class. Max Weber was one conflict sociologist who believed that those who are identified with their group stems from whom they socialize with and what the consume.

3.1.3. Interactionalism refers to the relationship between the schools and society that critiques the functional and conflict theories. It comes from observation of structure and process in a variety of general levels of analyzes. Internationalist try to make the commonplace strange by turning on their heads everyday for taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and students or students and teachers.

3.2. 5 effects of schooling that has the greatest impact on students.

3.2.1. The impact of students being knowledgeable and their attitude towards society is based on education. Although there are several different outlooks on this; however, one that stuck out was how the more education a student receives the more likely they are to read information pertaining to politics and public affairs. When a student is knowledgeable about politics he or she is able to distinguish their own values pertaining to their beliefs. The more years of schooling a student has the greater knowledge and social attitude the student will have when going into the real world.

3.2.2. A teachers behavior plays a role in how well the student performs. The impact that teachers have on their students determines how well the student is willing to work to achieve goals. When students get praised by teachers, it gives them the incentive to want to succeed while also making them feel good about themselves.

3.2.3. Education and equality have a big impact on students because some educators base how well a student will perform based on their class position. I feel like this sometimes has a negative effect on students because even though their family may be lower class citizens, it doesn't necessarily mean that the student will perform below grade level. All students should be given the equal chance at learning and a chance to succeed regardless if their social class is low. Some of the most influential people came from low social classes. This impacts students because if a teacher believes that the student won't succeed, then more than likely the teacher won't take time to encourage the student to perform differently

3.2.4. Tracking is another effect that has a impact on students. Tracking students is described as placing students based on their abilities and inclinations; however, tracking decision are often based off class or race. This affects students because sometimes they are not placed in areas that challenge them to succeed, instead they earn an easy grade because the class they are enrolled in is too easy for their intellectual ability. It is proven that track placement can have negative affects on cognitive development.

3.2.5. Lastly, gender plays a role in the effect of schooling that impacts students. It is known that men are not equal to women regarding jobs, pay, and so forth. With education men are mostly administrator positions while women are the teachers, this could send a message that women are subordinate of men. Also, studies have shown that boys receive greater attention from teachers. The gender gap in America has become more prodominate now more than ever because of the recent public affairs.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Describe the particular world view of one of student-centered philosophy of education

4.1.1. Generic notions: Existentialism is a rather modern philosophy with roots being traced back to the Bible. Existentialists believe that individuals are placed on this earth to make sense of what he or she make experience. Jean Paul Sarter believed that people must create themselves, and they must create their own meaning by the choices they make throughout their lifetime. People are constantly becoming, creating chaos and order, creating good and evil, but the choice is up to the individual.:

4.1.2. Key researchers: Existentialism is traced back to the biblical times, but most relate it to the nineteenth century European philosopher Soren Kierkegaurd. Some more recent researchers include Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Jean Paul Sarter, and modern day Maxine Greene.

4.1.3. Goal of Education:Existentialist believes that education should focus on the needs of an individual both cognitively and affectively. Individuality should be the main goal of existential education; teachers should include discussion of non-rational and rational world, as well as the tension of living in the world.

4.1.4. Role of Teacher: Teachers must be aware of their own world and the students world in order to help their students achieve the best “lived worlds”. Teachers need to take risk and expose themselves to resistant students and encourage their students to become, a term coined from Greene, “wide-awake”. Students should be empowered to choose and act on their own choices. The role of the teacher is to help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, and working together.

4.1.5. Method of Instruction: Existentialist believe that learning is intensely personal, meaning each child has a different learning style and it is up to the teacher to determine what works for each student as individuals. Martin Buber came up with an interesting approach called the “I-thou” approach; student and teacher learn together from each other in nontraditional, nonthreatening, “friendship”. As the teacher rediscovers knowledge, the children should discover knowledge, and together they come to an understanding of past, present, and future, particularly a future ripe with possibilities.

4.1.6. Curriculum:With existentialist, curriculum is heavily based toward humanities, especially language. Language is able to stimulate responses in readers that might move them to new levels of awareness . They believe that by exposing students to the problems and horrors, as well as the possibilities accomplishments humankind is capable of producing.

5. Schools as Organizations

6. Curriculum o& Pedagogy

7. Equality of Opportunity

8. Educational Inequality

9. Educational Reform