Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Educational Inequality

1.1. Functionalist theory

1.1.1. "just society" individual talent and hard work based on universal principles of evaluation

1.1.2. schooling will produce unequal results due to individual differences between students, not groups

1.2. Conflict theorist

1.2.1. role of schooling to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality, educational outcomes strongly linked to family background

1.3. Interactionist theory

1.3.1. must understand how people within families or schools interact on a daily basis to be able to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure

1.4. Characteristics of effective schools

1.4.1. high expectations for students by teachers and administrators

1.4.2. strong effective leadership by school administration

1.4.3. accountability processes for both students and teachers

1.4.4. close monitoring of student learning

1.4.5. high degree of instructional time on task

1.4.6. flexibility for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems

1.5. Cultural Deprivation Theories

1.5.1. Students come to school without the required intellectual and social skills

1.5.2. The poor have a deprived culture one that lacks the value system of the middle class

2. Educational Reform

2.1. Approaches to reform

2.1.1. Neo-liberal: stresses the independent power of schools elimination the achievement gap for some of the low income students

2.1.2. Broader Boldon: schools are limited institutions for eradication it's effects on its students

2.2. School based reform

2.2.1. school choice

2.2.2. charter schools

2.2.3. tuition vouchers

2.2.4. teacher quality - NCLB required all schools employ a highly qualified teacher in every room

2.2.5. school to work programs: teaches students that are not planning to attend college the skills necessary for successful employment

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Four Purposes of Education

3.1.1. Intellectual to transmit specific knowledge teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis

3.1.2. Political to instill an allegiance to the existing political order prepare citizens that will participate in this political order help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order teach children the basic laws of society

3.1.3. Social help solve social problems work as an institution to promote social unity socialize children into the various roles, behaviors and values of the society

3.1.4. Economic prepare students for their later occupational role to select , train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor

3.2. Political Perspectives

3.2.1. Liberal perspective in regards to unequal performance: individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances and therefore some groups have significantly more advantages than others

3.2.2. Conservative perspective: sees the role of the school as providing the necessary educational training tro ensure that the most talented and hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity

3.2.3. Radical perspective on educational problems : 1. The educational system has failed the poor, minorities, and women through classist, racist, sexist and homophobic policies 2. The schools have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American society through a curriculum and teaching practices that promote conformity. 3. The traditional curriculum is classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic and leaves out the cultures, histories, and voices of the oppressed. 4. The educational system promotes inequality of both opportunity and results.

4. Sociological Perspectives

4.1. Functionalism

4.1.1. based on interdependence

4.1.2. views society as a machine

4.1.3. Emile Durkheim, one of the earliest sociologist to accept this view

4.1.4. in a well functioning society, schools socialize students by appropriate values , then sort and select students based on their abilities

4.2. Conflict Theory

4.2.1. View schools as social battlefields

4.2.2. Emphasizes struggle; students against teacher, teachers against the administration, etc.

4.2.3. Karl Marx considered the founder

4.3. Interactionalism

4.3.1. critiques and extension of functionalism and conflict perspectives

4.3.2. examines issues at a deeper level

4.4. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

4.4.1. Knowledge and Attitudes academically oriented schools produce higher rates of learning time students spend in school is directly related to how much they learn education is related to individuals' sense of well-being and self-esteem more years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation

4.4.2. Employment academic credentials help individuals obtain higher paying jobs

4.4.3. Education and Mobility more education leads to economic and social mobility education opens the doors of opportunity

4.4.4. Teacher Behavior teachers set standards for students and influence self esteem teachers' expectations of students directly influence student achievement

4.4.5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation student cultures play an important role in shaping students' educational experiences Schools socialize, sort, and select students, therefore reproduce society

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Senator for Winston County: Greg Reed

5.2. Winston County House of Representative: Tim Wadsworth

5.3. Winston County Superintendent: Greg Pendley

5.3.1. Included

5.3.2. Included

5.3.3. Excluded

5.4. Alabama Superintendent: Tommy Bice

5.5. Board member from my area: Lamar Frith

5.6. Elements of change

5.6.1. Conflict is a necessary part of change

5.6.2. Staff involvement

5.6.3. New behaviors must be learned

5.6.4. Team building must extend to the entire school

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Four types of curriculum

6.1.1. Humanist knowledge of the traditional liberal ars as the basis of an educated society

6.1.2. Social Efficiency students receive different types of education to meet their specific needs, based on pragmatic/progressive view

6.1.3. Developmentalist emphasis placed on the process of teaching. progressive view, Dewey and Piaget

6.1.4. Social Meliorist schools should work to change society and help solve fundamental social problems, based on social reconstructionist theory

6.2. Group influence on curriculum

6.2.1. banning library books deemed inappropriate

6.2.2. textbook selection

6.2.3. parental values conflicting with school curriculum

6.2.4. Politically correct

6.3. The sociology of curriculum

6.3.1. Functionalist theory the role of curriculum is to provide students the knowledge, language, and values to promote social stability and social order

6.3.2. Conflict theory view curriculum as a reflection of ideology, do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect

6.4. Hidden Curriculum

6.4.1. norms that are taught to students through implicit rules but not written in the curriculum (how to walk in line, how to address teachers)

6.5. Null Curriculum

6.5.1. curriculum specifically omitted from being taught in school

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Achievement gaps

7.1.1. Definition: observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students( socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity or gender

7.1.2. Coleman Report: survey of educational opportunity, 650,00 students and teachers in over 3,000 schools, mandated by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, directed by James coleman results were originally interpreted incorrectly as the school has no influence on the academic outcome of a student. It suggested that the family factors determined the academic outcome. After further examination it was determined that the school also had a

7.2. Gender

7.2.1. historically, directly related to his or her educational attainment

7.3. Race

7.3.1. direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve

7.4. Class

7.4.1. different social classes have different types of educational experiences

7.5. Student/extra-school explanation of inequalities: focus on factors outside of school, such as family, community, culture, peer groups and the individual student

7.6. School centered or within-school explanation: factors within the school, teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability, grouping x school climate and teacher expectations

8. Philosophy of Education

8.1. Pragmatism

8.1.1. Founders; George Sanders Peirce, William James, John Dewey

8.1.2. encourages people to find their process that works to achieve their goals

8.1.3. interested in contemporary issues and in discovering solutions to problems in present-day terms

8.1.4. influenced by the theory of evolution and an optimistic belief in progress

8.1.5. attainment of a better society through education

8.1.6. democracy was of great importance and was possible through educations

8.1.7. Goals of Education school as a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged, and restructured provide students with the knowledge of how to improve the social order provide preparation for life in a democratic society balance the needs of the community and the individual

8.1.8. Role of the Teacher serve as a facilitator encourages, offer suggestions, questions, plans and implements courses of study must be knowledgeable in several disciplines to create and implement curriculum

8.1.9. Method of Instruction individual and group instruction children pose questions regarding what they want to know field trips and projects use of books written by teachers and students together alternative furniture grouping individualized study, problem solving and the project method replacing formal instruction

8.1.10. Curriculum utilized all the academic and vocational disciplines in an integrated way start with contemporary problem and work from the known to the unknown, now known as "the curriculum of expanding environments curriculum changes as social order changes and as children's interests and needs change

9. History of U.S. Education

9.1. The Emergence of the Public High School * attendance became required for those sixteen and under *Committee of Tens formed, students will have the same curriculum, taught in the same manner * "Cardinal Principles" stated the main goals of secondary education

9.2. Historical Interpretations of U.S. Education Democratic-Liberal perspective views each period of educational expansion as attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and to reject the conservative view of schools as elite institutions for the privileged