Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Liberal Perspective

1.1.1. 1. Role of School Provides equal opportunities for all students to succeed in the world.

1.1.2. 2. Explainations for unequal Performances

1.1.3. 3. Definition of educational problems. Limit the chances for poor and unprivileged children and underachievement is very serious issue with this group. Too much focus is placed on maintaining discipline. Inequality in all ascepts. The curriculum leaves out diversity in cultural groups.

1.2. Purpose of Education

1.2.1. 1.Intellectual teach cognitive skills, transmit knowledge, and help students acquire higher-order thinking skills.

1.2.2. 2. Political inculcate allegiance to the existing, to prepare citizens to participate, to help diverse cultural groups into a common political order, and teach children common laws

1.2.3. 3 Economic . The purpose of this schooling is to prepare students for their future jobs and to train for the workforce.

1.2.4. 4.Social The purpose

2. History of Education

2.1. Reform Movemment

2.1.1. Opposition to Public Education Not groups will subscribed to idea of the common school. Horace Mann stated that common schools should exist Many parents felt taxing public schools was unfair. Roman Catholics founded their own schools in the 1860s. Public schools were being founded all over the United States during the 1860s. Congress passed the Morrill Act in 1862, which authorized the use of free money to help build universities all cross the world.

2.2. Historicial Interpretation

2.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School They believed that education involves progressive evolution and equal opportunities for everyone. The Democratic School included people such as: Ellwood Cubberly, Merle Curti, and Lawrence A. Cremin Popularization and multiudinousness Lawrence Cremin summarized in one of his books that the democratic perspective is when higher education is part of American education and provides a place for all. Demorcartic-liberals thought of U.S. education as optimistically and it must continue to move closer to each, without sacrifices.

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Theoretical Perspective

3.1.1. Fuctionalism Interdependence Functionalists view the world as a machine, where one part works with the other to make society work as a whole. Emile Durkheim was the first to use the functionalist point of view. He believed that education was of a critical importance in creating peace in society. Functionalists believed that conflict in society represents a breakdown in shared beliefs. The educational reform from a functionalist point of view, is to create an educational system that provides cohesion.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory They do not view society as being truthful. Conflict sociologists emphasize was placed on struggle rather than social order. Karl Marx was the founder of the conflict school. Max Weber, he believed that class differences could not stand alone it had to be something there to hold them up. Conflict perspective also offers important insights about the relationship between school and the world.

3.1.3. Interactionalism Interactional theories look at the big picture. Basil Bernstein argued the structural aspects of the educational system reflect each other .

3.2. Effects of Schooling

3.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes According to researchers, differences between schools account every difference in student achievement. There are also differences in their academic and program policies. The first researcher to show differences in schools was Ron Edmonds. The higher the social class, the higher rates of learning it will produce. The more education that a student receives the more politically aware a person will be. Education also relates a sense of self-esteem.

3.2.2. Employment Many college bound student believe that higher education will produce higher paying jobs. Research shows that the large corporations require higher levels of education. Research also shows that schools are clear indicators in determining who will have the higher paying jobs. African American males will earn as much as their white counterparts.

3.2.3. Teacher behavior Teachers have a huge impact on student's behavior. Teachers play various roles, which can often lead to role strain. Teachers are role models for their students and often influence self-esteem. The self-fulfilling prophecy indicates teachers expectations toward their students. Persell said that teachers demand more from their students.

3.2.4. Tracking Tracking refers to the placement of students in the curricular programs based upon their abilities. Tracking is often based on students' race or class. Affects students cognitive ability. Students who are on the lower track usually experience isolation.

3.2.5. Gender School produce inequality through gender discrimination. Girls are usually cognitively and socially ahead of boys in school. In high school, girls start not living up to their goals.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentalism

4.1.1. Generic Notions Believe that individuals are placed on the earth alone and some sense of the craziness in the world.

4.1.2. Goal of Education Existentialists believe that education focus on the needs of individual people, both cognitively and affectively. Stress individuality

4.1.3. Role of the Teacher Teachers have to understand their own lives before they can understand the lives of the students they are teaching. To help students understand the world through posing questions, genering activities, and working together

4.1.4. Method Of Instruction Existentalists view learning as intensely personal. Each child has a different way of learning and it is up to the teacher to figure it out. Martin Buber wrote an I-thou approach, this when the teacher and student work together in a nonthreatening way.

4.1.5. Curriculum Based on humanities

5. Ch. 6 Schools as Organizations

5.1. Major Stakeholders

5.1.1. state senators Colbert County District 6: Larry Stutts

5.1.2. Federal Alabama Senators and House of Representive Richard Shelby- Senator Doug Jones- Democratic Senator Bradley Byrne Mike Rogers Robert Aderholt Mo Brooks Gary Palmer Terri Sewell

5.1.3. state superintedent Michael Sentance

5.1.4. representive on state school board Dr. Tommy Bice

5.1.5. local school superintendent Dr. Gale Satchel

5.2. Elements of change

5.2.1. school processes The powerful cultural qualities of schools that make them so potent in terms of emotional recall, not in terms of cognitive outcomes Process and content are interrelated

5.2.2. school cultures Willard Waller stated that the culture of schools is when personalities unity. The personalities of everyone who meets in school are together in someway. The life of the whole could not exist without any parts

6. Ch. 7 Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. 1. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.1.1. Puts the needs of students first rather than the world they live in.

6.1.2. This curriculum was formulated form the works of Dewey who described the relationship between the child and curriculum.

6.1.3. Piaget was also a strong supporter of this curriculum.

6.1.4. Curriculum was related to real life experiences of the student in way that made education a more meaningful process.

6.1.5. Teachers are part of the growth processes of their students.

6.2. 2. Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. 1. Mimetic Tradition The transmission of critical information to our students. The transmission of knowledge is done through the didactic method. The most important part of this traditional method of teaching, is the relationship between the teacher and child. Rational Sequencing Emphasis is placed on measurable goals.

6.2.2. 2. Transformative tradition The relationship between the teaching and learning process vary greatly The overall purpose of the transformative tradition is change students in a way that has meaning Teachers use multidimensional way of teaching their students.

7. Ch.8 Equality of Opportunity

7.1. 1. Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Race It is hard so separate race from class. Minority students receive fewer educational opportunities than their peers. Minority students get lower SAT scores and receive fewer college acceptance letters than whites.

7.1.2. Class Based on achievement scores on reading tests and skills tests. Upper and middle class families set high expectations for their kids require them to finish school and go off college. Whereas, working class and lower class families want their children to get jobs in order to pay bills.

7.1.3. Gender Gender differences have changed dramatically throughout the 20th century. Males have a higher dropout rate than females. Men tend to score higher on SATs than women. Men out perform women in mathematics.

7.2. 2. Coleman Study

7.2.1. 1. Responses to Coleman: Coleman and his saw things as significant but others viewed them as insignficant

7.2.2. 2. Responses to Coleman: According to Coleman where a child goes is closely related to that student's socioeconomic upbringing. A child's background and status greatly effects student achievement.

8. Ch.9 Educational Inequality

8.1. 1. Cultural Differences

8.1.1. One type of cultural difference theory sees working class and minorities children as resisting the dominant culture of the school.. This group of students reject anything that their fellow classmates say according to academic success.

8.1.2. Working-class and black students may arrive at school with different cultural ideas than their classmates, and without the skills they need for school. This is due to being part of a minority group. They attributed these cultural differences to poverty, racism, discrimination, and unequal life chances.

8.2. 2. School-centered Explainations

8.2.1. 1. School Financing Jonathan Kozol documented that the vast differences in funding between poor and rich schools called for equalization in school financing. Public schools are financed through combination of revenues.. Affluent schools are able to provide more money.

8.2.2. 2. Effective School Research Teachers found the findings of Coleman interesting, in that the differences in school resources and quality do not explain between- school differences in performance rates. Student differences are often more important than school differences, and teachers cannot be to blame for low achievement rates of students.

8.2.3. 3. Between-School Differences: Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices The effective school research points to how differences in what is often termed school climates affect academic performance. Bernstein suggested that schools in the working-class community are more likely to have authoritarian and teacher-directed pedagogic practices and to have a vocationally or social efficiency curriculum. Schools in middle-class neighborhoods are less authoritarian and more student-centered. Upper class students are more likely to attend private schools.

8.2.4. 4. Within-School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping Students at the elementary school levels are divided into different reading groups according to their ability level. Albert Shanker stated that education is the United States assumes that students from lower communities are not capable of doing school work and therefore schools do not offer them challenging curriculum.

9. Ch. 10 Educational Reform

9.1. 1. School-based reforms

9.1.1. 1. Privization In the 1990s, the traditional distinction between public and private education became blurred when private education become the forefront over public education.

9.1.2. President Clinton signed the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994. The law provides seed money to local and state partnerships of business, labor, government, education, and community organizations.

9.1.3. 2. School-to-work Programs Relevant education allows for students to explore different skills and see what peeks their interest. Every school-to-work system has three core elements: school- based learning, work-based learning , and connecting activities.

9.2. 2. Two Reforms

9.2.1. 1.Full Service and Community Schools Full service schools focus on meeting the needs of students and everyone in the community.

9.2.2. Connecting School, Community, and Societal Reforms Research suggests that in order for school reforms to be successful it must contain the following: leadership as the driver for change, parent-community ties, professional capacity, student-centered learning climate, and instructional guidance