Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Pragmatism

1.1.1. Generic Notions

1.1.1.1. Ideas were influenced by theory of evolution

1.1.1.2. embryonic community

1.1.2. Researchers

1.1.2.1. Sanders Peirce (1839-1914)

1.1.2.2. John Dewey (1859-1952)

1.1.2.3. William James (1842-1910)

1.1.3. Goals of Education

1.1.3.1. Integrate children into a democratic society

1.1.3.2. Self growth- "progressive education"

1.1.4. Teacher's role

1.1.4.1. assumes the position of a facilitator

1.1.4.2. Encourages students

1.1.4.3. must have command of several disciplines

1.1.5. Methods of Instruction

1.1.5.1. Problem solving

1.1.5.2. Inquiry method

1.1.5.3. Group activities

1.1.6. Curriculum

1.1.6.1. expanding environments

1.1.6.2. curriculum changes as social order changes

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform movement

2.1.1. Common School

2.1.1.1. Led by Horace Mann

2.1.1.1.1. Believed education would help children escape poverty

2.1.1.2. School should be free

2.1.1.3. Teachers should be trained

2.1.1.4. Students should be required to attend school

2.2. Historical intrepretation

2.2.1. democratic-liberals

2.2.1.1. popularization

2.2.1.2. Multitudinousness

2.2.1.3. Believe Common School Era is the first step in education for all

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Theories about the relation between school and society

3.1.1. Functional

3.1.1.1. Society is held together by shared values

3.1.1.2. Encourages social unity

3.1.2. Conflict

3.1.2.1. Emphasize struggle

3.1.2.2. The powerful use their ideologies to gain more control

3.1.3. Interactional

3.1.3.1. Critiques and extension on functional and conflict theories

3.1.3.2. macro-sociological theories

3.1.3.2.1. focuses on the "big picture"

3.1.3.3. Micro-sociological therories

3.1.3.3.1. studies behavior in everyday situations

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Employment

3.2.1.1. Studies have shown that graduating from college leads to greater employment opportunities

3.2.1.2. No correlation between job performance and amount of education

3.2.2. Social Mobility

3.2.2.1. success is based on one's own merit

3.2.3. Student cultures

3.2.3.1. Careerist

3.2.3.1.1. middle class background

3.2.3.1.2. not intellectually motivated

3.2.3.2. Intellectuals

3.2.3.2.1. highly educated families

3.2.3.2.2. politically involved

3.2.3.2.3. Earned many honors

3.2.3.3. Strivers

3.2.3.3.1. Working-class background

3.2.3.3.2. graduate with a sense of accomplishment

3.2.3.3.3. hard working

3.2.3.4. Unconnected

3.2.3.4.1. all different background

3.2.3.4.2. least satisfied with college experience

3.2.4. Curriculum placement

3.2.4.1. Serves as a direct impact on probability of attending college

4. Chapter 7: Curriculum and Pedagogy

4.1. Curriculum

4.1.1. Humanist

4.1.1.1. Reflects on idealist philosophy

4.1.1.2. all students should study English, foreign languages, mathematics, history, and science (regardless of whether they want to go to college or not)

4.1.1.3. assumed common culture

4.1.2. Social Efficiency

4.1.2.1. belief that different groups of students should receive different types of schooling

4.1.2.2. Individualized and flexible curriculum

4.1.2.3. Controversial

4.1.2.4. Pedagogical progressivism

4.1.3. Developmentalist

4.1.3.1. focuses on needs of students rather than society

4.1.3.2. Also Developed from Dewey's ideas

4.1.3.3. Flexibility of what was taught and how it was taught

4.1.4. Social Meliorist

4.1.4.1. Believed schools should change society

4.1.4.2. Influences

4.1.4.2.1. George Counts

4.1.4.2.2. Harold Rugg

4.1.4.3. Contemporary critical curriculum theory

4.1.4.3.1. stresses the role of curriculum in moving students to become aware of societal problems

4.2. Traditions of Teaching

4.2.1. Mimetic

4.2.1.1. purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students

4.2.1.2. Didactic method

4.2.1.3. rational sequencing in the teaching process and assessment in the learning process

4.2.1.4. measurable goals

4.2.2. Transformative

4.2.2.1. purpose of education is to change the student in a meaningful way

4.2.2.2. multidimensional theory of teaching

4.2.2.3. rejects authoritative relationship between teacher and students

5. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity

5.1. Impacts on Educational Outcomes

5.1.1. Class

5.1.1.1. Favors wealthier families

5.1.1.2. Children from working class and underclass families are more likely to underachieve, drop out, and resist the curriculum of the school

5.1.1.3. peer groups have a significant influence on students' attitudes toward learning

5.1.1.4. direct correlation between parental income and children's performance on achievement test

5.1.2. Race

5.1.2.1. individual's race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve

5.1.2.2. Minority students receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities than white students.

5.1.2.3. Minority students rewards for educational attainment are significantly less

5.1.3. Gender

5.1.3.1. In the last 20 years, gender differences between men and women, in terms of educational attainment, have been reduced

5.2. Coleman Study (1982)

5.2.1. argue that race and class are predictors of academic success

5.2.2. school segregation based on race and socioeconomic status and within school interactions dominated by middle class values are largely responsible for gaps in student achievement

5.2.3. Catholic schools seem to advantage low income minority students

5.2.3.1. They are becoming more elite and like suburban public schools

6. Chapter 9: Educational Inequalty

6.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

6.1.1. theorist assert that the poor have a deprived culture

6.1.2. results in educationally disadvantaged students who achieve poorly because they have not been raised to acquire the skills and dispositions required for satisfactory academic achievement

6.1.3. removes the responsibility for school success and failure from schools and teachers, and places it on families

6.2. School-Centered Explanations

6.2.1. school financing

6.2.1.1. more affluent communities are able to provide more per-pupil spending than poorer districts

6.2.2. school differences: curriculum and pedagogic practices

6.2.2.1. schools in working class neighborhoods are far more likely to have authoritarian and teacher-directed pedagogic practices, and to have a vocationally or social efficiency curriculum at the secondary level

6.2.2.2. middle class communities are more likely to have less authoritarian and more student centered pedagogic practices

6.2.2.3. Bernstein's theory

6.2.3. Curriculum and ability grouping

6.2.3.1. different groups of students in the same schools suggest that there may be school characteristics affecting these outcomes

6.2.3.2. elementary level: students are divided into reading groups and separate classes based on teacher recommendations, standardized test scores, and sometimes ascriptive characteristics such as race, class, or gender

6.2.3.3. curriculum receive similar curriculum, but is taught at different paces

6.2.3.4. higher tracks are more likely to have more dialectical, student-centered practices, with discussion and thinking-based evaluation

6.2.3.5. differences hold even when the tracks are based on ability rather than curriculum

6.2.4. gender and schooling

6.2.4.1. feminist movement challenged unequal treatment of women in all aspects of society and worked actively to change both attitudes and laws that limited the life chances of women

6.2.4.2. curriculum materials portray men's and women's roles often in stereotypical and traditional ways

6.2.4.3. organization of schools reinforces gender roles and gender inequality

7. Chapter 10: Educational Reform

7.1. School-Based Reforms

7.1.1. School-Business Partnerships

7.1.1.1. Boston Compact (1982)

7.1.1.2. scholarships for poor students to attend college and programs where businesses "adopt" a school

7.1.1.3. corporate and business support for public schools has fallen dramatically since the 1970s

7.1.1.4. School-business partnerships have attracted considerable media attention, but there is little convincing evidence that they have significantly improved schools

7.1.2. School-to-Work Programs

7.1.2.1. extend what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college-bound students regarding skills necessary for successful employment and to stress the importance of work-based learning

7.1.2.2. School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994

7.1.2.2.1. signed on May 4, 1994

7.1.2.2.2. Bill Clinton

7.1.2.2.3. provided seed money to states and local partnerships of business, labor, government, education, and community organizations to develop school-to-work systems

7.1.2.3. provide students with relevant education, allowing students to explore different carreers and see what skills are required in their working environment

7.1.2.4. provided students with skills, obtained from structured training and work-based learning experiences

7.1.2.5. provided students with valued credentials,

7.2. Social Reforms

7.2.1. educational reform in the US from the 1980s to 2012 has emphasized the excellence side of the excellence and equity equation

7.2.2. Darling-Hammonds outlines five key elements needed to reform education

7.2.2.1. meaningful learning goals

7.2.2.2. intelligent, reciprocal accountability systems

7.2.2.3. equitable and adequate resources

7.2.2.4. strong professional standards and supports

7.2.2.5. schools organized for students and teacher learning

7.2.3. 1990-more funding was needed to serve the children in the poorer school districts

7.2.4. 2009- New Jersey Supreme Court ruled as constitutional a new funding formula

7.2.4.1. these educational reforms have demonstrated the potential to improve schools for low-income and minority children, especially in urban areas

8. Politics of Education

8.1. Purposes of Schooling

8.1.1. Intellectual

8.1.1.1. Promotes academic learning to help students achieve higher-order thinking skills

8.1.2. Social

8.1.2.1. Promotes social cohesion and introduces students to the values of society

8.1.3. Political

8.1.3.1. Prepares students for their political and civic lives

8.1.4. Economic

8.1.4.1. Prepares students for their later occupational roles

8.2. Political Perspectives

8.2.1. Conservative

8.2.1.1. Role of the School

8.2.1.1.1. Provide necessary educational training so individuals maximize social productivity

8.2.1.1.2. Socialize children into adult roles

8.2.1.2. Explanations for unequal performances

8.2.1.2.1. Survival of the Fittest

8.2.1.2.2. Achievement is based on hard work

8.2.1.2.3. Individual Initiative

8.2.1.3. Educational Problems

8.2.1.3.1. Decline of Standards

8.2.1.3.2. Decline of Cultural Literacy

8.2.1.3.3. Decline of Values

8.2.1.3.4. Decline of Authority

8.2.2. Liberal

8.2.2.1. Role of the School

8.2.2.1.1. Beliefs schools' role is to provide an equal opportunity for all students

8.2.2.1.2. Respect cultural diversity

8.2.2.1.3. School's role enable individuals to develop a sense of self

8.2.2.2. Explanations for unequal performances

8.2.2.2.1. Individual students have more advantage than others

8.2.2.3. Educational Problems

8.2.2.3.1. Limited chances for poor and minority children

8.2.2.3.2. Discipline and authority has too much emphasis

8.2.2.3.3. Traditional curriculum

8.2.3. Radical

8.2.3.1. Role of the School

8.2.3.1.1. Aims to serve those with economic wealth and political power

8.2.3.2. Explanations for Unequal Performances

8.2.3.2.1. Equality of Opportunity is an illusion

8.2.3.2.2. Educational failure are cause by the economic system

8.2.3.3. Educational Problems

8.2.3.3.1. Educational system promotes inequality

9. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizations

9.1. Major Stakeholders

9.1.1. State Senator

9.1.1.1. Richard Shelby

9.1.2. House of Representative

9.1.2.1. Robert Aderholt

9.1.3. State Superintendent

9.1.3.1. Michael Sentance

9.1.4. State school board representatives

9.1.4.1. Governor Robert J Bentley

9.1.4.1.1. President

9.1.4.2. Dr. Yvette Richardson

9.1.4.2.1. Vice President- District 4

9.1.4.3. Mary Scott Hunter

9.1.4.3.1. President Pro Tem- District 8

9.1.4.4. Mr. Michael Sentance

9.1.4.4.1. Secretary and Executive Officer

9.1.4.5. Jackie Zeigler

9.1.4.5.1. District 1

9.1.4.6. Betty Peters

9.1.4.6.1. District 2

9.1.4.7. Stephanie Bell

9.1.4.7.1. District 3

9.1.4.8. Ella B Bell

9.1.4.8.1. District 5

9.1.4.9. Cynthia Sanders MdCarty

9.1.4.9.1. District 6

9.1.4.10. Jeffrey Newman

9.1.4.10.1. District 7

9.1.5. Local School Board

9.1.5.1. Chairman

9.1.5.1.1. Mr Jeff Williams

9.1.5.2. Vice Chairman

9.1.5.2.1. Mr Matt Sharp

9.1.5.3. Board Member

9.1.5.3.1. Mr Robert M Elliott

9.1.5.4. Board Member

9.1.5.4.1. Randy M. Peppers

9.1.5.5. Board Member

9.1.5.5.1. Mr. Mark Richards

9.1.6. Local superintendent

9.1.6.1. Dr. Jason Barnett

9.2. Elements of change

9.2.1. definite population

9.2.2. clearly defined political structure

9.2.2.1. arising from the mode of social interaction characteristics of the school

9.2.2.2. influenced by numerous minor processes of interaction

9.2.3. represent the nexus of a compact network of social relationships

9.2.4. pervaded by a "we feeling"

9.2.5. have a culture that is definitely their own