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Geography by Mind Map: Geography

1. History

1.1. Colinialism

1.1.1. Idea that land was limitless

1.2. Very early Environmentalism

1.2.1. Modern Environmentalism Sustainable Development Today's Environmentalism 80's and 90's 50's, 60's and 70's Brown issues Realizing downsides of large economic growth Cultural Ecology Green Revolution

1.2.2. Early 1900's Romanticizing Wilderness Fear of running out of resources

1.3. Concepts of Nature

1.3.1. Urbanism Over explooitation

1.3.2. Preservation Conservation Usage within limits of environment No usage of environment

1.3.3. Socionature Ecocentric Values focused on non-human organisms Contructivist Nature has never been "natural" Anthropgenic Landscapes

1.3.4. Possibilism

1.4. How to Study History

1.4.1. Archives Documents Oral History

1.4.2. Paleoclimate

1.4.3. Modern environment Soils Pollen Ice Cores Tree Rings Geochronology

2. Geographers

2.1. Study of people living in different areas

3. Agricultrue

3.1. Systems

3.1.1. Traditional System Pastoralism Nomadic Hearding Took into account of harsh environmental conditions Perceived in Global North as inefficient and inferior Prominent in Global South Based on subsistence Ag. Intensive Tradition High Yields and heavy inputs Shifting Cultivation (Swidden) (Slash - and -Burn) Problematic when population is high or rapidly growing Constraints Reduced fallow time Return to poly-cultural systems is difficult Trend of alternative employment in urban areas Soil erosion

3.1.2. Industrial and Plantation Ag. Prominent in Global North Monocultural Uses Fossil Fuels GMO's Fertilizers Large amounts of water Large commercial farming business Family Coorporate Constraints High yields = High inputs Circle of poison created by pesticides and herbacides Genetic Escape Water Contamination

3.1.3. Green Revolution Mixed Industrial and Traditional Systems

3.1.4. Agrosystems Interaction between plants and pests Helps keep diversity in systems

3.2. Famine & Hunger

3.2.1. Causes Food Access Do people have access to the food available KEY to begin solving famine and hunger Food Availibility Is there food or not Food Sovereignty The right for people to have food Food Self- Sufficency People being able to produce their own food and meet consumption needs Food Security Having food to meet nutritional needs

4. Physical

4.1. Realms

4.1.1. Hydrosphere Water Water Cycle Covers 70% of Earth's surface Hydraulic Technology

4.1.2. Atmosphere Air Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

4.1.3. Lithosphere Ground

4.1.4. Biosphere Biogeography Focus on Patterns in environment Ecology Biomes Def: Focus on Relationships between organisms and physical environment Life

4.2. Definition: Study of the where and why of Earth

4.3. Population able to repopulate after a bottleneck

4.4. Hazzards

4.4.1. Def: Situations that can cause injury, disease, economic loss, or environmental damage

4.4.2. Natural & Human created causes

4.4.3. Hazard Risk Risk NOT equally shared Risk Perception Prior Experience Fast moving hazards VS. Slow moving hazards Economic Situation Vulnerability Adaptation Def: How people recover from shock Coping Long term

4.5. Geologists

4.5.1. Focus on study of Earth in general

5. Human Relationship

5.1. Social Darwinism

5.1.1. Inferiority of some races in an environment

5.2. Environmental Determanism

5.3. Environmental Justice

5.3.1. Effects of industrialization on people of color

5.3.2. Unequal distribution of risk exposure

5.3.3. Environmental Equity Geographic Social Equity Procedural Generational

5.3.4. Environmental Racism Correct past injustices NIMBY BANANA Build absolutely nothing anywhere near nobody

5.4. Feminist Political Ecology

5.4.1. Differing experiences from men and women

5.4.2. Special attention to: Age Class Ethnicity Linguistics


5.5.1. Paul Ehrilich (1968) NeoMalthusian Population bomb in the global South

5.5.2. Structuralist Perspective Engles Individuals benefit through labor

5.5.3. Neostructuralist Hoarding resources = scarcaties Boderup Greater productivity comes from population increases Harvey Why do people only consider population and resources

5.5.4. Malthus Population grows exponentially, food production is geometric Proven wrong by Esther Borerup

5.5.5. Cornucopian / Technocratic Technology will overcome resource contraints Simon Innovation comes from free markets and rising prices Focuses on economic substitute Lamberg Environmental issues are not supported by relevant data

5.5.6. I= PAT equation Impact = Population * Affluence * Technology Criticisms More population does NOT equal more of an impact Humans are just considered predators to the environment Equation doesn't account for conservation and preservation

5.5.7. Demographic Transition Birth rate & Fertility fall with education + affluence Demographic Change Fertility Immigration & Emigration

6. Economic

6.1. GDP

6.1.1. Environmental Degradation ( Huntington & Semple GDP and Env. Degradation decouple after societies have developed or are becoming more developed (AKA reach a turning point) Environmental Kuznet's Curve

6.2. GNI

6.3. Modernization Theory

6.3.1. European innovation key to economic growth

6.3.2. Will usually fall as education and affluence increases

6.4. Dependency Theory

6.4.1. Global North made Global South dependent Underdevelopment Mercantilism

6.4.2. Dualism Development of area at the expense of another Parisitism

6.5. World Systems Theory

6.5.1. 3 realms of nations Core Most Developed Semi periphery Emerging Nations Periphery Developing Global South

6.5.2. Structualism