My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. FOUR SCHOOL-CENTERED EXPLANATIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY are that vast differences are funding between suburbs wit public schools and public schools in urban and poor districts. PUBLIC SCHOOLS are financed through local,state taxes, and SIGNIFICANTLY PROPERTY TAX. property TAXES ARE HIGHER FOR MORE AFFLUENT COMMUNITIES so more money to schools. MORE AFFLUENT CAN PROVIDE MORE PER-PUPIL SPENDING THAN POORER DISTRICTS. SEEN AS DISCRIMINITORY UNDER THE (EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF THE FOURTEENTH AMMENDMENT) and it denies equal opportunity. Serrano vs. Priest (1971), the California Supreme Court ruled the system of unequal school financing between wealthy and poor districts unconstitutional. It did not declare the use of property tax for school funding illegal. Later more states followed but in Court ruling, was declared unjust, not unconstitutional. Federal will not intervene. State responsibility. The use of foundation state aid programs implemented to ensure all districts have minimum standard of funding. It's one way of providing equal opportunity.

2. The Politics of Education

2.1. The purpose of schooling

2.1.1. 1. Intellectual: To teach basic cognitive skills as reading, writing, and math. To transmit specific knowledge in literature, history and science, etc. To help students acquire higher order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

2.1.2. 2. Political: To promote allegiance to the existing political order; to prepare citizens that will participate in that order; to help assimulate diverse cultural groups into a common order; and teach children laws of basic society.

2.1.3. 3. Social: To help solve social problems; to work as on of many institutions, such as the family or the church- to ensure social cohesion; to promote socialization-promoting children into various roles , behaviors, and values of society.

2.1.4. 4. Economic: To prepare students for their occupational roles to select, train, and allocate individuals into division of labor.

2.2. Political Perspectives

2.2.1. 1. Conservative: Origins in the nineteenth-century social Darwinist thought that applied to evolutionary theories of Darwin to the analysis of society. It was originally developed by sociologist William Graham Sumner. Believes that humans must compete in social environment to survive; progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive. Believes capitalism economic system is most respectful of human needs to thrive.

2.2.2. 2. Liberal: Origins in the twentieth century. John Dewey is known in this ere 1880-1930. The liberal view became politically popular during president Franklin Delano Roosevelt's term. Believes that abuses in free market can hinder groups who are disadvantaged economically and politically. It believes in the balancing act with the market to favor majority of people. Emphasis on equality. Believes social problems stresses that groups, not individuals are affected by structure of society. Solutions should focus on social problems rather than individuals.

2.2.3. 3. Radical: Negative feelings towards the U.S. society. Recognizes productive capacity of capitalist economy but argues that society's structure creates vast and morally indefensible inequalities with its members.

2.3. Traditional and Progressive Visions of Education

2.3.1. Traditional: Tend to view the school to teach the traditional views of society such as hard work, family unity, individual initiative, etc.

2.3.2. Progressive: View the schools as a central place to solve social problems, a vehicle for upward mobility, development for individual potential, and to become an integral part of democratic society; to pass on the best of what was and what is, and schools should be part of steady progress to make things BETTER.

2.4. The Role of the School

2.4.1. Each of the perspectives is concerned with the aims, purposes, and functions of education in society.

2.4.2. Radical believe the schools prepare children from different social backgrounds for different roles in the economic labor division. It is social and cultural reproduction. Believe that opportunity is an illusion. That schools give the false idea that all students have been given a fair chance but have truly not.

2.4.3. Conservative believe that schools should ensure all students should have opportunity to compete individually. Inidividual effort should be rewarded.

2.4.4. Liberals believe in equal opportunity and inequality should be minimized. Even though history records that upward mobility provided help, many educational opportunities and achievements did not appear for level of rich and poor. Still a gap.

2.5. Explanations of Unequal Educational Performance

2.5.1. All right wing and left wing agree that school is insufficient in "leveling the plane " for the rich and poor.

2.5.1.1. Radicals and liberals agree that students from socio-economic backgrounds begin school with unequal opportunities. Radicals go further and blame the economic system, state that changes in political-economic structure are crucial for changing outcome. Unfair.

2.5.2. Education and Policy Reform

2.5.2.1. Defining educational problems is the first step in solving the problems. From the 1980's to 2000's, each perspective supported education reform and policy recommendations.

2.5.2.2. Conservatives support: Return to Basics; strengthening skills such as reading and writing; return to traditional academic curriculum; introduce accountability standards; introduce free market mechanisms. for ex. tuition tax credits so parents have option to send kid to charter, private, or public school of choice.

2.5.2.3. Liberals support: quality for all students with equality of opportunity for all. (quality with equality) Policies to improve failing schools, aka urban schools; teacher's having a voice in policy decision making: programs should enhance quality of Head Start programs; present a curriculum that hold traditions of western society with the treatment of a culturally diverse society. Providing a "balancing act" between setting acceptable standards and ensuring all students can obtain.

2.5.2.3.1. Radicals support: teaching methods that are multicultural, antiracist, antisexist ,anticlassist, antihomophobic. Sensitizing students to these groups. Teaching methods should involve "critical pedagogy". Give students, teachers, parents more of a voice! Empowerment!!!General level believe that not only school problem but societal change. Support most liberal views as long as leads to greater EQUALITY of education.

2.5.2.4. Education and the American Dream

2.5.2.4.1. Educational reform evolved from more than 50 years ago but it since the beginning. Before the 60's and 70's schools provided education to who could take advantage. Quality of schools diminished. Conservative Theory. Liberals believe schools have been successful to the masses. Radicals believe the schools prepare different classes of people for different schools. for example, poor or minority students go on to vocational or community colleges, upper middle class go to baccalaureate four year college, and so on. "American Dream is a Theory/illusion".

3. The History of Education

3.1. Old World and New World Education: The Colonial Era

3.1.1. 1. Settlers in the U.S brought their ideas about education to the New World. Believed that rich required education since they were ruling class. Early settlers that were planters, townsmen, had tutors for children and went to England for university education.

3.1.1.1. 2. Wealthy Colonists' sons remained in United States for higher education when nine institutions for higher learning were established.

3.1.1.1.1. 3. 1636 Harvard University Found; ( 1693 ), College of William and Mary; ( 1701 ), Yale University; ( 1740 ) University of Pennsylvania;

3.1.1.2. 5. Ruling Class, aristocracy, and wealthy merchants, utilitarian, and civic motives emerged. ( pg.64 ) "The Old Deudler Law" passed 1642 and 1647. Fined parents for their children's bad behavior that resulted in them not attending to their reading and writing needs and keep them religiously illiterate.

3.1.1.2.1. 6. Deudler Law was first law passed. Second law passed to keep "Satan Deudler Law away". ( pg.64 ) This law was the Massachusets School Law. Responsible for requiring every town that had "50 household" to appoint one teacher to educate all children to read and write. Teacher should also get paid a wage. Towns that had " 100 household " required grammar school set up. Equivalent to today's secondary school.

3.1.1.2.2. 7. Unitarianism theme spawned. Benjamin Franklin known for his ideas. Published in 1749 "Proposals Related to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania".

3.2. The Age Of Reform: The Rise of the Common School

3.2.1. 1. Famous period historians refer to as Industial Revolution takes place from 1820 to 1860. Began in Englan as the textile industry and crossed Atllantic and settled mainly in the noth. Immigrants from all different walks oflife came to new world.

3.2.1.1. 2. The people who held positions were not as articulate in nature nor spiritual.. The schools that worked well in the past were not anymore. America as the "New Jerusalem" thought by the Puritans, was now the secular paradise created by the new reformers. It was so bad that Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote " We are a little wild here with numberless projects of social reform." Many reformers believed that that a secular paradise was through education.

3.2.2. Utilitarianism is projected in 'The Age of Reform" The theory is based on best actions is one that maximises utility or in other words, the well being of sentitent entities, such as human beings or other animals. Schools and learning would benefit society as a whole.

3.2.3. Mann believes that schools can change the social order and education can foster social mobility. These are the beliefs responsible for faith and support many people give U.s. public schools. (pg.68) These arguments were spun off by the establishment of the common school.

3.2.4. opposition to public education

3.2.4.1. Not everyone agreed to common school idea. Roman Catholics found their own schools. They thought the tax was unfair by non--recipients, a conspiracy led by the Protestants. In 1862, the Morril Act was passed, resulting in large state universities.

3.2.4.1.1. Education for Women and African Americans

3.2.5. Social engineering reform. Was introduced by Edward l. Thorndike. Opposite of child- centered reform. Placed emphasis on the organism's response to it's environment. Believed schools should change human beings in positive way and the pedagogy to achieve it would be scientifically determined (Cremin, 1961, p. 114 ; Exploring Education p. 71)

3.2.6. Education for All: The Emergence of the Public High school

3.2.6.1. Tensions in society grew and was pondered upon what the meaning of education was. First was the study of classical academics such as Greek second was the purpose to meet college entrance requirements, third was the idea to prepare students for life. Fourth was that all students require the same courses. the Committee of Ten's recommendations were through the National education Association (NEA). another was through the Carnegie foundation for the Advancement, known as Carnegie units and were implemented throughout the country.

3.3. This chapter speaks of meritocracy. The ruling parties, the elite, governed society based on their abilities.

4. ch. 3 The History of Education

5. ch.4 The Sociology of Education

5.1. The school' makes a difference in students lives. Persell provides a model for analyzing in her book Education and Equality.

5.2. The societal level includes poliitcal and economic systems. The institutional level includes the church, family, business and government. The interpersonal includes symbols associated with those institutions. iInteapsychic level includes personal thoughts, values, feelings.

5.3. The Use of Sociology for Teachers

5.3.1. Interactions in the classroom shape the learning experiences of the child.

5.3.2. Flanders hypothosized that students performance was best when teacher influence was indirect, other interactions in classroom besides teacher talk.

5.4. The Relation between School and Society

5.4.1. Schools and parents shape the child's perception of the world through socialization. Socializtion process can shape a child's conscious. This happens through segregation of boys and girls in activities.

5.4.2. Theoretical Perspectives

5.4.2.1. Theory is an integration of all known principles,laws, and information in a particular area of study. Three major theories about relation to school and society: functional, conflict, and interactiional.

5.4.2.2. Functional Theory sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. Theorists,Herbert Spencer and Robert Merton.

5.4.2.2.1. Conflict theory claims" society is in a state of conflict due to competition for limited resources. Social order is maintained by domination and power,rather than consensus and conformity." Karl Marx

5.4.3. Bourdieu and Passeron examines how cultural caapital and social captial are passes on by families and schools. These are indicators of class and position.

5.4.3.1. cultural captial is knowledge and experiences related to art, music, and literature. Social capital is related to social networks and connections.

5.4.4. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

5.4.4.1. Most Americans believe that school has an impact on social and economic mobility.

5.4.4.1.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

5.4.5. Employment

5.4.5.1. Research shows that education is weakly related to job performance. Although getting a degree increases chances of getting higher payed jobs. Women are still under payed compared to men. Thisis due to segregation by sex and that women work part-time and have family obligations.

5.4.6. Education and Mobility

5.4.6.1. A private school diploma may act as a " mobility escalator" because it hold a more prestigious educational route (Cooks and Persell, 1985). The debate about public school as the equalizer has not been resolved.

5.4.6.2. Data does not prove that education can give great amounts of social and economic mobility.

5.4.6.2.1. Inside the Schools

6. ch. 6 Schools as Organizations and Teacher Professionalization

6.1. THE STRUCTURE OF U.S. EDUCATION

6.1.1. Examination of the nations's elementary and secondary schools. tHE DUALITY OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS. CONSOLIDAION has led to less teacher control over curriculum. U.s. system is decentralized and dedicated to the equal educational opportunity.

6.1.1.1. GOVERNANCE

6.1.1.1.1. The U.S has 50 different state schoolssystems. The public school are paid for by revenue that is raised by local property taxes. Reform is difficult to achieve because local citizens have apowerful voice in the local system even though agents who have the expertise. Their dcisions get made at the top but trickle down and eventually trickle out toward the bottom. (p.221) Since the 1960's, the feseral government has entered the educational policy fieldto enforce student's civil rights.

7. Chapter 5. Philosophy of Education

7.1. The world view of of student centered philosophy of education on existentialism would be focused on the humanities such as art, drama, music, and personal interaction. Literature would be incorporated into curriculum to create more awareness and evoke responses. (p.191)

7.1.1. Existentialists view learning as very personal. Students have unique learning styles and it is up to teacher to find out what it is and apply individualized instruction. Teacher ands student discover knowledge together in cooperative, non- threatening environment to understand past, present, and future to create a future with great possibilities. Role of teacher is to help students understand world by asking questions, generating activities, and working together.

7.1.1.1. In extistentialists world, the role of the teacher is understand their own worlds as well as the students. To make students wide awake through introspection and carry great responsibility as a teacher.

7.1.1.1.1. Existentialists believe educaton should focus on needs of individual. Individualism, notion of possibilities explored, be part of the change within oneself and the world,. Educaton is liberation from chaotic world.

8. Ch. 7

8.1. CURRICULUM, PEDAGOGY, AND THE TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE

8.1.1. The curriculum theory which I advocate is humanist. Know a little knowledge of everything.Liberal Arts cornerstone. Although I agree on some of all of the theories and what good value they bring to the table, individuality is important. Humanist theory nurtures this. Teachers teach by looking at the individual as a whole person and tries to see through the students eyes. The individual looks at the world through their own eyes and experiences. "You can not paint a group of people with one broad brush."

8.1.1.1. TWO DOMINATE TRADITONS ARE: Tradtional Teaching/Back to Basics and Conventional Education. Reading, Writing, and Math. It refers to long-established customs that society traditionally used in schools. The opposite of tis is Progressive Education. Has been adopted more since the education reform.

8.1.1.1.1. WHAT DO SCHOOLS TEACH? The curriculum mandated by the state and also teach in a way that integrates sociology, political, history, and idealistic ways of thinking. (p.281)

9. Ch. 8

9.1. EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY AND EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES. CLASS, RACE, AND GENDER EACH IMPACT EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES. Society is highly stratified-rich people, poor and people in between. There is also gender and race issues. It is believed that in the U.S. people individually can overcome these issues wit education and move upward. Castes and hierarchy sometimes hinders upward mobility. For example, well meaning parent that is somewhat educated sends her kid to public school. Neighbor sends her kid to private school focused on individual talent. She can afford it but the other cannot. The child that went to private school got better education due to low student-teacher ratio and focus on individual talents. Upper-middle class are more likely to speak standard English and have more books on hand at home. Lower class have low expectations of current educational outcomes. may not go to college, may not even graduate. see no goal ahead. Race interferes because of segregation and the bad scar it left behind, SINCE THE 1960'S, our society is still highly stratified. Minorities have lower SAT scores which means fewer will attend college/life outcomes. Cycle continues. Gender inequality is explained by the opportunities we held from the past. WOMEN WERE USUALLY HOMEMAKERS. Women often better rated than men as students, the opportunity did not exist or attain same level of education. Now that women have caught up with the men, some argue that the classroom became feminist.

9.1.1. TWO RESPONSES FROM THE COLEMAN STUDY 1982: RESPONSE 1 : Others saw that student outcomes from public to private schools were very tiny. Coleman saw them as significant. Judged against reasonable benchmarks, they were almost the same outcomes. IT IS NOTED IN STUDIES THAT FOR THE POOR STUDENT, PRIVATE SCHOOLS PERFORMED BETTER. (p.368) RESPONSE 2: Another response is that attending a high poverty school or a highly segregated African American school would have more of a profound effect on the student achievement than an individual's race or socio-economic class. IT IS NOTED THAT SCHOOL INTERACTIONS DOMINATED BY MIDLE-CLASS VALUES IS LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ACHIEVEMENT GAPS.

10. Ch. 9

10.1. TWO TYPES OF CULTURAL DEPRIVATION ARE: Popularized in the 1960's, suggests that working class and non-white families often lack cultural resources. such as books, educational materials, lack of travel destinations, museums. Arrive at schools disadvantaged. Another theory was that the POOR have a deprived culture- one that lacks the value system of the middle class.(423) Middle-class culture values hard work and initiative, delay of immediate gratification for future reward, and importance of schooling as a means of future success, Poverty income culture did not have these values. PROJECT HEAD START schools were erected to compensate the low income families an d their child's education.

11. Ch. 10

11.1. EDUCATIONAL REFORM AND SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT. TWO SCHOOL-BASED REFORMS ARE SCHOOL BASED AND SCHOOL-BUSINESS PARTNERSHIPS.

11.1.1. SCHOOL BASED REFORM IS BASED ON THE NEO-LIBERAL APPROACH. INDEPENDENT POWER TO THE SCHOOLS IN ELIMINATING ACHIEVEMENT GAP. EVERY SCHOOL HAS A HIGHLY EFFECTIVE TEACHER AND PRINIPAL, TO CREATE A SYSTEMWIDE ACCOUNTABILTY, EMPOWER PARENTS, ENCOURAGE THEM TO DEMAND MORE FROM SCHOOLS AND FROM THEMSELVES, CONSTANTLY FOCUSE ON WHAT IS BEST FOR STUDENTS. ARGUMENTS ARE STUDENTS ARE AT DISADVANTAGE BEFORE THEY ARE BORN DUE TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND BIRTH DEFECTS,ETC. SCHOOL BASED IS WHEN PARENT CAN CHOOSE WHAT SCHOOL HIS/HER SON CAN GO TO. MAGNET SCHOOLS, CHARTER SCHOOLS, AND SCHOOL VOUCHERS. INTRASECTIONAL SCHOOL CHOICE POLICIES INCLUDED ONLY PUBLIC SCHOOLS. sTATES LIKE MINNESOTA ALLOWED STUDENTS TO ATTEND SCHOOL IN ANY DISTRICT IN THE STATE AS LONG AS NOT UPSET RACIAL BALANCE. CHARTER SCHOOLS ARE PUBLIC SCHOOLS THAT DO NOT HAVE THE REGULATIONS APPLIED TO THEM LIKE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

11.1.1.1. SCHOOL-BUSINESS PARTNERSHIPS ARE SCHOLARSHIPS FOR POOR STUDENTS TO ATTEND COLLEGE AND PROGRAMS WHERE BUSINESSES ADOPT A SCHOOL. THE BILL AND MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION HAS CONTRIBUTED HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO SMALL SCHOOLS AND MORE RECENTLY TO TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS.

11.1.1.1.1. DESCRIPTION OF SOCIETAL/ECONOMIC REFORMS: COURT RULING OF 1990, STATING THAT MORE FUNDING WAS NEEDED TO SERVE THE CHILDREN OF POORER SCHOOL DISTRICTS. EXTRA FUNDING TO BE DISTRIBUTED TO PROVIDE ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS TO ELIMINATE DISADVANTAGES WITHIN POORER SCHOOL DISTRICTS. IN 1998, STATE WAS REQUIRED TO IMPLEMENT PACKAGE OF SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAMS INCLUDING PRESCHOOL, AND RENOVATE URBAN SCHOOL FACILITIES. ABBOT V IMPLEMENTED ADDITIONAL ENTITLEMENTS FOR URBAN SCHOOLS, INCLUDING WHOLE SCHOOL REFORM, FULL DAY KINDERGARTEN, PRESCHOOL, PROVIDE ADEQUATE SPACE FOR ALL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS. OTHER SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAMS INCLUDED SOCIAL SERVICES, SCHOOL TO WORK TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION, SUMMER SCHOOL PROGRAMS.