Exploring Education

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Exploring Education by Mind Map: Exploring Education

1. Politics in Education

1.1. Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual

1.1.1.1. transmit specific knowledge

1.1.2. Political

1.1.2.1. teach students to know basic laws of society..

1.1.3. Social

1.1.3.1. helps students to solve social problems

1.1.4. Economic

1.1.4.1. Prepares students for jobs after school.

1.2. Conservatives

1.2.1. Conservatives views come from ideas of social darwinism. Individiuals must compete to survivef

1.2.2. Role of the school is to insure that the most talented and hard working individuals recieve the tools to be successful.

1.2.3. Educational problems: Decline of literacy, decline of standards, decline of values, and decline of authority.

1.2.4. Educational policy and reform: Return to the basics

1.3. Liberals

1.3.1. Liberal viewpoints originates from the works of John Dewey. This perspective is all about equality and balancing economic productivity of capitalism.

1.3.2. Liberals believe in the eqaulity of oppoetunity.

1.3.3. Educational Problems: poor and minority children do not have the chances others have. Traditional curriculum leaves out diverse cultures.

1.3.4. Educational policy and reform: Equality for all

1.4. Radicals

1.4.1. Radicals viewponts are based on the writings of Karl Marx. They believe the capitalist system will lead to socialism.

1.4.2. Belives that schools should eliminate inequalities. Serves the interests of those with political power.

1.4.3. Educational Problems: Schools support inequality and traditional curriculum is racists, classist, and sexist.

1.4.4. Educational policy and reform: Supports most liberals as long as it leads to better equality of education.

2. The History of Education

2.1. The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School

2.1.1. Horace Mann was a big part of the rise of the common school. The citizens would vote to pay taxes to train teachers so they will be more knowlegable to teach and get a bigger salary. Also this helped in funding to build new schools. The school year was also lengthened. Mann believed that education can foster social mobility and change the social order.

2.2. US Historical Interpretations

2.2.1. Denocratic-Liberal School

2.2.1.1. Denocratic-liberal schoolninvolves progressive evolution. Believes that all expansion have involved liberal reform. More students from diverse backgrounds cause the education to become more diverse with social goals becoming more important.

3. The Sociology of Education

3.1. Functionists stress the independence of the social system. Functionalism sees the education system as teaching the next generation basic skills and knowledge.

3.2. Conflict Theory believes that education is not just held together by shared values alone. The ability of the dominant groups will impose their will.

3.3. Interactionalism believe that the teachers expectations will influence the students actual performance.

3.4. 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students

3.4.1. Knowledge and attitudes effect schooling. The students social class and background affects the achievement level in the schools.

3.4.2. The teachers behavior is obviuosly important to the students education. When the teachers expect the students to learn and encourage the students, they learn more and feel better about themselves.

3.4.3. The of the more obvius ways schools reproduce inequalities is inadaquete school. The urban education has failed the schools in educationg minoritys.

3.4.4. Another way that some schools reproduce inequalities is through gender discrimination. This gender gap has been reduced but it still exists.

3.4.5. Tracking also has an impact on the schools. Students in "high ability" tracks recieve a better education because of the facilities, staff and more activities that are available.

4. The Philosophy of Education

4.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1. Idealists use abstact questioning that are not easily answered that help find the truth.

4.1.2. Realists- Aristole and Plato searched for the ideas in different ways. Aristole believed more in the material world.

4.1.3. Pragmatism encouraged students to learn skills to better society. The would learn these skills through experimenting and the traditional approach.

4.1.4. Existentialism is an individualistic philosophy. The choice is up to the individual. Individuals must learn and create themselves.

4.2. Key Researchers

4.2.1. Idealism was created by a Greek Philosopher Plato. He was a pupil fo Socrates. Plato idea in engaging individuals by questiongs peoples views. Plato wanted the state to play an active role in education.

4.2.2. Realism is associated with Plato and Aristole. Aristole created the systematic theory of logic.

4.2.3. The founders of pragmatism John Dewey, william James, and Sanders Peirce. Pragmatism comes from the greek work pragma. The meaning of Pragma is to work.

4.2.4. Existentalism began in the nineteenth century by Soren Kierkegaegaard.

4.3. Goal of Education

4.3.1. Idealism is all about Ideas changing lives.

4.3.2. Like Idealism they searched for ideas through questioning. The goal would be to apply principles of science to learn.

4.3.3. The goal of Pragmatists was to use ideas, and provide student with knowledge to improve society.

4.3.4. Existentialism is all about the individual. Educational goals should focus on the needs of the individual.

4.4. Role of Teacher

4.4.1. The Idealist teacher is an active role model in discussing and questioning the students. They believe in turning their ideads into actions.

4.4.2. Realists the role is to allow students to learn ojectives throgh the evaluation of methods

4.4.3. Pragmatism The teacher takes the role of a facilitator. The teacher has a curriculum and plan of discipline to establish order.

4.4.4. Existentalists provide students pathways to discover their own values. Students are encouraged to express themselves through discussions..

4.5. Method of Instruction

4.5.1. Idealists lecture and question students in the classroom. They aply what they have learned to society.

4.5.2. The method of instruction of the realist is to lecture, question,and answer.

4.5.3. Pragmatism believes in working individually and in groups.

4.5.4. Extistentalist believe that each students learns different and it is up to the teacher to learn what works best for he student.

4.6. Curriculum

4.6.1. I dealists emphasize the three R's.

4.6.2. Realists curriculum contains math, science, reading, writing, and humanities

4.6.3. Pragmatism follows Deweys core curriculum

4.6.4. Existentalism curriculum is based on humanities.

5. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

5.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum believes that students with different needs and aspirations require different schooling.

5.2. Humanists is focused on western heritage. Believes that traditional liberal arts are the cornerstone.

5.3. Developmentalists leans torwards the needs of the student rather than the needs of society.

5.4. Different Views on Pedagogic Practices

5.4.1. Mimetic tradition viewpoint is that education is to transmit specific knowledge to students.

5.4.2. Transformative tradition believes in changing the student in some meaningful way. This may include creatively, spiritually, emotionally, and intellectually.

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. Winfield City Schools

6.1.1. Superintendent- Keith Davis

6.1.2. Chairman- James Garner

6.1.3. Vice Chairman- Carol Dickinson

6.1.4. member- Chris Carothers

6.1.5. member- Dana Peoples

6.1.6. member- Brenda Taylor

6.2. Larry Stutts- Senate District 6

6.3. Mike Millican- Representitive District 17

6.4. State Superintendent- Michael Sentance

6.5. School Processes and cultures

6.5.1. Changing cultures in school require skill, patience, and good will. It is not an easy task. making the school more learner centered. It takes time and effort.

7. Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

7.1. Class- Students from different social classes have different educational experiences. Education is expensive and some families just cant afford it. Of course a family in the upper class will be able to support their student financially better than a student from the working class. Race- Although society has came a long way, race stills has an impact. According to our book, 5.2% of white students drop out of school, whereas 9.3% of African-American students drop out. Gender- Historically women are less likely to attain the same level of education. Today womens are less likey to drop out and have a higher reading level than males.

7.2. Coleman Study (1982)

7.2.1. Achievement differences between private and public sectors are reduced but differences still remain.

7.2.2. Race and social class composition of a students school are 1 3/4 times more important than the individual race or class.

8. Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. Cultural deprivation theory suggest ths non-white, working class families are at a disadvantage because the just dont have the resources.

8.1.2. Working class, non-white students are the dominant culture in school. The students reject the white-middle class culture and lean more torwards a more antischool culture.

8.2. School centered explanations for inequality

8.2.1. School financing

8.2.2. Effective school research

8.2.3. Gender

8.2.4. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

9. Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. School-to-work programs

9.1.1. This was a work based learning approach for non-college-bound students. This allowed students to explore different career opportunities and learn the skills that are required.

9.2. School- Business Partnerships

9.2.1. In the 1980's businesses did not think the schools were producing the graduates necessary. Business would partner up and contribute to help these schools grow and improve.