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Eukarya by Mind Map: Eukarya

1. Diplomonads & Parabasalids

1.1. - Unicellular - Flagellated - Lack chloroplasts - Live in anoxic conditions

1.2. Diplomonads

1.2.1. - Have two nuclei of equal size - Have mitosomes - Cause giardiasis

1.3. Parabasalids

1.3.1. - Contain a parabasal body - Have hydrogenosomes - Live in the intestinal and urogenital tracts of animals as parasites - Cause Trichomonas vaginalis (most common STD)

2. Euglenozoans

2.1. - Unicellular - Flagellated

2.2. Kinetoplastids

2.2.1. - Contain kinetoplast: mass of DNA present in their single large mitochondrion - Live in aquatic habitats - Cause Trypanosomas brucei (African sleeping sickness, tsetse fly, CNS) - Single flagellum enclosed in a membrane flap

2.3. Euglena

2.3.1. - Non-pathogenic and phototrophic - Contain chloroplasts - If stored in the dark, can lose chloroplasts

3. Stramenopiles

3.1. Possess flagella with short hair-like extensions

3.2. Oomycetes

3.2.1. - Water molds: filamentous growth + hyphae - Cell walls made of cellulose - Cause the late blight disease in potatoes

3.3. Golden Algae

3.3.1. - Chloroplast pigments dominated by the carotenoid fucoxanthin

3.4. Diatoms

3.4.1. - Unicellular, phototrophic - Freshwater and marine habitats - Frustules: cell walls made of silica with proteins and polysaccharides for protection

4. Alveolates

4.1. Contain alveoli (sacs underneath the membrane to keep osmotic balance)

4.2. Ciliates

4.2.1. - Possess cilia (motility and food) - Two nuclei (macro and micronucleus) - Conjugation (sexual reproduction): 2 paramecia exchange micronuclei

4.3. Dinoflagellates

4.3.1. - Marine and freshwater phototrophs - Free-living or symbionts with coral - Transverse flagellum: wrapped around (turning) - Longitudinal flagellum: extends away (propulsion)

4.4. Apicomplexans

4.4.1. - Obligate parasites - Contain apicoplasts (degenerate chloroplasts that lack pigments) - Cause malaria, toxoplasmosis, and coccidiosis

5. Cercozoans

5.1. Threadlike pseudopodia: extension of cytoplasmic material

5.2. Foraminifera

5.2.1. - Exclusively marine organisms - Tests: calcium carbonate and organic materials

5.3. Radiolarians

5.3.1. - Marine, heterotrophic - Tests: silica

6. Amoebozoan

6.1. - Use pseudopodia for movement and feeding - Move by amoeboid movement - Capable of agriculture and pack hunting

6.2. Gymnamoebas

6.2.1. - Free-living - Inhabit soil and aquatic

6.3. Entamoebas

6.3.1. Parasites of vertebrates and invertebrates

6.4. Slime Molds

6.4.1. - Produce fruiting bodies with spore ready for dispersal - Motile

6.4.1.1. Plasmodial Slime Molds: Plasmodium --> Sporangium --> Swarmer cell --> Two swarm cells = diploid plasmodium

6.4.1.2. Cellular Slime Molds: Pseudoplasmodium --> Fruiting body --> Spores --> Diploid (meiosis) --> Haploid

7. Algae

7.1. Red Algae

7.1.1. - Mostly marine - Red colour from phycoerythrin (phycobillin) - Multicellular

7.2. Green Algae

7.2.1. - Mostly freshwater - Unicellular or multicellular - Sexual or asexual

8. Fungi

8.1. Chytriodiomycetes

8.1.1. - Moist soil and freshwater - Fruiting body contains zoospores (flagellated and motile) - Some are pathogenic (amphibians)

8.2. Zygomycetes

8.2.1. - Food spoilage - Soil and decaying plant materials - Coenocytic, form zygospores

8.3. Ascomycetes

8.3.1. - Aquatic and terrestrial - Decompose dead plant material - Unicellular - Two haploid nucleic from different mating types fuse, which forms a diploid nucleus that undergoes meiosis to form haploid spores - Saccharomyces cerevisae: budding

8.4. Basidiomycetes

8.4.1. - Yeasts and pathogens of plants and humans - Spores (basidiospores) at the end of basidium