Developing Countries

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Developing Countries by Mind Map: Developing Countries

1. Once colonialism ended it left a culture that wasn’t used to democracy

2. Theory came out of the Marxist (School of thought)

2.1. Argues that capitalism is exploitation system

3. Nationalism- patriotic feeling/ principles or efforts

4. Post Racial Society- theoretic view of US having no discrimination or racial problems

5. Terms:

5.1. LDC- Least developed countries

5.2. underdevelopment- a state of not having basic needs

5.3. development- process of meeting these basic needs / some countries are west of where they were 10 years ago

5.4. The Global South- geographic dimensions, developing countries

5.5. Third world country: coined during Cold War period, nonaligned with NATO or a communist country (?)

5.6. LIC - Least Industrialized COuntries

5.7. Global poverty- anyone who lives below $2 a day you live under global poverty line below 1.25 a day= extreme poverty line

5.8. GDP- Gross Domestic Product

5.9. GNI- Gross national Income/ average income of country/

5.9.1. problem- doesn't show where the money goes to

5.10. HDI- Human development Index

5.11. colonialism- 90% of undeveloped countries have been colonized for some time

6. What developing countries have in common

6.1. 1. Colonization

6.1.1. most have been colonized one time or another

6.2. Similar economic structures

6.2.1. export- a whole lot

6.2.2. import very little

6.3. 3. tarriffs- makes it harder to sell and tariffs happen when they try to ship to other countries

6.3.1. Ghana's chocolate would be worth more a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports

7. Primary products

7.1. what developed countries are focused on

7.2. they'd send raw materials to europe (cocoa/diamonds)

7.3. not an efficient way to run an economy

7.4. selling in raw state, losing $

7.5. selling cocoa seeds has to sell for less because perishable, can add value if they sold it as chocolate since last longer and that's how they want it anyways

7.6. free trade is not free

7.7. instead the countries can sell the chocolate from that country so it does not affect like Switzerland's chocolate

8. Social charactersitics of developing countries

8.1. shorter life spans in Developing countries due to health care issues and stuff

8.2. access to education, not the same way as in developED countries

8.2.1. most will finish a primary education but few will get a secondary education

8.2.2. makes the market into skilled labor because of lack of education

8.3. Brain drain - most educated in developing countries leave to developed countries

8.4. women are not equal due to cultures in other countries

9. Transatlantic slave trade

9.1. started around 1400s

9.1.1. before it happened slave trade existed in Africa and Europe, was significantly different

9.1.2. war between two different ethic groups, whoever was defeated you become slaves to who won

9.1.3. there was social mobility, captured and enslaved=not race specific

9.1.4. slavery was not race specific more towards class

9.1.5. africans slave owners could own africanslaves

9.1.6. traingular trade exclusively race slave

10. Consequences

10.1. Between 30-50 million africans were taken from the content

10.2. No accurate records/ destroyed

10.3. West and central africa countries but cannot determine specifically what countries

10.4. Kormantine ethnic group usually taken

10.5. Depopulated continents

10.6. Population far below most in a continent

10.7. The Middle Passage→ the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. many people were dropped in the Atlantic ocean

10.8. Changed the ecology of the ocean because of all the bodies being dropped there

10.9. Destroyed acquired skills

10.10. Destroyed kingdoms

10.11. 20 million european guns into west africa

10.12. Once transatlantic slave trade introduced race it created a superiority / racism

10.13. Colonization europe was taking territories

11. Colonialism

11.1. Most third world countries went under colonialism

11.2. Only two that has been colonized that are developed countries: US and Australia

11.3. All third world countries that are third world have been colonized

11.4. Reason why they became developed: they are the same people/ europeans went to US and Australia, they just expanded

11.5. Colonialism the in position of authority over a territory by an outside force

11.6. Scientific curiosity → wanted to see what was outside of their own area

11.7. Political reasons→ prestige

11.8. Main reason for colonialism was economic

11.9. Economic reason was the strongest

12. Consequences of colonization:

12.1. Started 1470-1970s

12.2. Most colonies ended up in the 1970s

12.3. European colonization was much longer in south america

12.4. Economic consequences→ exercise in exploitation of the resources of the colonized

12.5. Lot of capital was taken from the colonies

12.6. metropole→ country doing the colonization

12.7. Lots of transfer of resources

12.8. neo-colonialism→ the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies.

12.9. Colonialism destroyed many economic structures that existed before such as trade in the countries colonized

13. On the political side:

13.1. Alien systems of government in the former colonies

13.2. To begin with colonists was an exercise of totalitarianism

13.3. Based on totalitarian government no democracy involved

13.4. Governors weren’t democratic

13.5. Aulhoritariamism is what the countries knew

13.6. Imposed political structures

14. Baswana

14.1. Kgotla system→ in every serious issue that affected the country, they discussed and take vote. The chief will have to follow the majority vote

15. Socially

15.1. Major impact bc of colonialism

15.2. Few languages that dominates the international scene:English, France, Spanish

15.3. All colonial languages

15.4. Africa is regarded as the mother of languages

15.5. Most african countries has 1,000 languages per capita

15.5.1. Example: around/ over 100 languages in ghana

15.6. Without Africa, france would have been a dying language

15.7. Languages come from a culture, a way of life, killing a language means the culture is dying

15.8. If the language is dead then the culture is dead

15.9. Colonism has killed many cultures=superiority complex

15.10. Culture of the colonizer seems superior to the colonized

16. Why are some countries not developed

16.1. Two theories:

16.1.1. Rostow-Modernization theory→ argues that every society goes through five stages of development 1. Traditional society→ all society started from this state/based on agriculture (agrarian) 2. Preconditions for take-off → start to recognize agriculture, increase productivity 3. Take off → start to manufacture goods, industries come up, diversify. More in industries less in agriculture. Dual economy 4. Drive to maturity stage→ having industries and diversify them, manufacturing in all areas . moves from being dependent to self sustaining, standard of living improves 5. Age of Mass consumption → full functioning economy, lifestyles has improved

16.1.2. Dependency theory→ share the same concept Structuralist school of thought

17. Dependency theory:

17.1. Correlation between developed and developing countries: the more developed countries develop the less the developing countries get

17.2. The cheaper the developed countries pay for raw material from the developing countries, the more profit the developed countries have

18. Capitalism is the single most productive economic system in history

18.1. Problem: how it distributes its process/product Who gets what

18.2. Very few at the top=get almost all the wealth

18.3. NAFTA allows america to go to mexico to get goods then sell it in US

18.4. NAFTA allows both countries to benefit on paper

18.5. ISL Import Substitution Industries→ subsides the local company, don’t make them pay taxes for a certain amount of years

19. group of 8 - decision is actually made by this group (Developed countries such as America, britian)

20. Trans Atlantic Slavery- race specific (one slave masters/other slaves)

21. Foreign aid= dependency / ex: Israel

22. Bretton Woods Institutions = World Bank / also the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

22.1. set up at a meeting of 43 countries to rebuild post war economy and to promote economic cooperation

23. Economic Characteristics

23.1. poverty happens because less productivity

23.2. developing countries could work harder than developed coutries but not as efficient

23.2.1. technology can be a factor

23.2.2. don't have the facilities to make them as successful

23.3. infrastructure, lack of infrastructure in developing countries

23.3.1. transportation

23.3.2. communication

23.3.3. energy

23.3.4. water

23.3.5. access to electricity

24. WTO- World Trade Organization

24.1. regulates global trade

24.2. on paper all countries have one vote

25. subsidies

25.1. argued third world countries by developed countries should remove subsidies from their product

25.2. government should not subsides their product, reduces their value

25.3. subsidy- a sum of money granted by the government or a public body to assist an i ndustry or business so that the price of a commodity or a service may remian low or competitive

25.4. america gives 30 billion dollars for subsidies to farmers

25.5. developing countries have a LARGE INFORMAL SECTORS

25.5.1. no tax deprives government of needed revenue

25.5.2. creates a safety problem, things that have not been tested or approved by the government, cannot be sure of the safety of the government

26. Political characterisitics

26.1. developing countries tend to have a less political power

26.2. tend to be more creative when democratic

26.3. do better than totalitarian governments

27. Triangular slave trade

27.1. longest inhumane trade lasted 400 years