Developing Countries

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Developing Countries by Mind Map: Developing Countries

1. Once colonialism ended it left a culture that wasn’t used to democracy

2. Theory came out of the Marxist (School of thought)

2.1. Argues that capitalism is exploitation system

3. group of 8 - decision is actually made by this group (Developed countries such as America, britian)

4. Trans Atlantic Slavery- race specific (one slave masters/other slaves)

5. Foreign aid= dependency / ex: Israel

6. Bretton Woods Institutions = World Bank / also the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

6.1. set up at a meeting of 43 countries to rebuild post war economy and to promote economic cooperation

7. Nationalism- patriotic feeling/ principles or efforts

8. Post Racial Society- theoretic view of US having no discrimination or racial problems

9. Terms:

9.1. LDC- Least developed countries

9.2. underdevelopment- a state of not having basic needs

9.3. development- process of meeting these basic needs / some countries are west of where they were 10 years ago

9.4. The Global South- geographic dimensions, developing countries

9.5. Third world country: coined during Cold War period, nonaligned with NATO or a communist country (?)

9.6. LIC - Least Industrialized COuntries

9.7. Global poverty- anyone who lives below $2 a day you live under global poverty line below 1.25 a day= extreme poverty line

9.8. GDP- Gross Domestic Product

9.9. GNI- Gross national Income/ average income of country/

9.9.1. problem- doesn't show where the money goes to

9.10. HDI- Human development Index

9.11. colonialism- 90% of undeveloped countries have been colonized for some time

10. What developing countries have in common

10.1. 1. Colonization

10.1.1. most have been colonized one time or another

10.2. Similar economic structures

10.2.1. export- a whole lot

10.2.2. import very little

10.3. 3. tarriffs- makes it harder to sell and tariffs happen when they try to ship to other countries

10.3.1. Ghana's chocolate would be worth more a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports

11. Economic Characteristics

11.1. poverty happens because less productivity

11.2. developing countries could work harder than developed coutries but not as efficient

11.2.1. technology can be a factor

11.2.2. don't have the facilities to make them as successful

11.3. infrastructure, lack of infrastructure in developing countries

11.3.1. transportation

11.3.2. communication

11.3.3. energy

11.3.4. water

11.3.5. access to electricity

12. Primary products

12.1. what developed countries are focused on

12.2. they'd send raw materials to europe (cocoa/diamonds)

12.3. not an efficient way to run an economy

12.4. selling in raw state, losing $

12.5. selling cocoa seeds has to sell for less because perishable, can add value if they sold it as chocolate since last longer and that's how they want it anyways

12.6. free trade is not free

12.7. instead the countries can sell the chocolate from that country so it does not affect like Switzerland's chocolate

13. WTO- World Trade Organization

13.1. regulates global trade

13.2. on paper all countries have one vote

14. subsidies

14.1. argued third world countries by developed countries should remove subsidies from their product

14.2. government should not subsides their product, reduces their value

14.3. subsidy- a sum of money granted by the government or a public body to assist an i ndustry or business so that the price of a commodity or a service may remian low or competitive

14.4. america gives 30 billion dollars for subsidies to farmers

14.5. developing countries have a LARGE INFORMAL SECTORS

14.5.1. no tax deprives government of needed revenue

14.5.2. creates a safety problem, things that have not been tested or approved by the government, cannot be sure of the safety of the government

15. Social charactersitics of developing countries

15.1. shorter life spans in Developing countries due to health care issues and stuff

15.2. access to education, not the same way as in developED countries

15.2.1. most will finish a primary education but few will get a secondary education

15.2.2. makes the market into skilled labor because of lack of education

15.3. Brain drain - most educated in developing countries leave to developed countries

15.4. women are not equal due to cultures in other countries

16. Political characterisitics

16.1. developing countries tend to have a less political power

16.2. tend to be more creative when democratic

16.3. do better than totalitarian governments

17. Transatlantic slave trade

17.1. started around 1400s

17.1.1. before it happened slave trade existed in Africa and Europe, was significantly different

17.1.2. war between two different ethic groups, whoever was defeated you become slaves to who won

17.1.3. there was social mobility, captured and enslaved=not race specific

17.1.4. slavery was not race specific more towards class

17.1.5. africans slave owners could own africanslaves

17.1.6. traingular trade exclusively race slave

18. Triangular slave trade

18.1. longest inhumane trade lasted 400 years

19. Consequences

19.1. Between 30-50 million africans were taken from the content

19.2. No accurate records/ destroyed

19.3. West and central africa countries but cannot determine specifically what countries

19.4. Kormantine ethnic group usually taken

19.5. Depopulated continents

19.6. Population far below most in a continent

19.7. The Middle Passage→ the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. many people were dropped in the Atlantic ocean

19.8. Changed the ecology of the ocean because of all the bodies being dropped there

19.9. Destroyed acquired skills

19.10. Destroyed kingdoms

19.11. 20 million european guns into west africa

19.12. Once transatlantic slave trade introduced race it created a superiority / racism

19.13. Colonization europe was taking territories

20. Colonialism

20.1. Most third world countries went under colonialism

20.2. Only two that has been colonized that are developed countries: US and Australia

20.3. All third world countries that are third world have been colonized

20.4. Reason why they became developed: they are the same people/ europeans went to US and Australia, they just expanded

20.5. Colonialism the in position of authority over a territory by an outside force

20.6. Scientific curiosity → wanted to see what was outside of their own area

20.7. Political reasons→ prestige

20.8. Main reason for colonialism was economic

20.9. Economic reason was the strongest

21. Consequences of colonization:

21.1. Started 1470-1970s

21.2. Most colonies ended up in the 1970s

21.3. European colonization was much longer in south america

21.4. Economic consequences→ exercise in exploitation of the resources of the colonized

21.5. Lot of capital was taken from the colonies

21.6. metropole→ country doing the colonization

21.7. Lots of transfer of resources

21.8. neo-colonialism→ the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies.

21.9. Colonialism destroyed many economic structures that existed before such as trade in the countries colonized

22. On the political side:

22.1. Alien systems of government in the former colonies

22.2. To begin with colonists was an exercise of totalitarianism

22.3. Based on totalitarian government no democracy involved

22.4. Governors weren’t democratic

22.5. Aulhoritariamism is what the countries knew

22.6. Imposed political structures

23. Baswana

23.1. Kgotla system→ in every serious issue that affected the country, they discussed and take vote. The chief will have to follow the majority vote

24. Socially

24.1. Major impact bc of colonialism

24.2. Few languages that dominates the international scene:English, France, Spanish

24.3. All colonial languages

24.4. Africa is regarded as the mother of languages

24.5. Most african countries has 1,000 languages per capita

24.5.1. Example: around/ over 100 languages in ghana

24.6. Without Africa, france would have been a dying language

24.7. Languages come from a culture, a way of life, killing a language means the culture is dying

24.8. If the language is dead then the culture is dead

24.9. Colonism has killed many cultures=superiority complex

24.10. Culture of the colonizer seems superior to the colonized

25. Why are some countries not developed

25.1. Two theories:

25.1.1. Rostow-Modernization theory→ argues that every society goes through five stages of development 1. Traditional society→ all society started from this state/based on agriculture (agrarian) 2. Preconditions for take-off → start to recognize agriculture, increase productivity 3. Take off → start to manufacture goods, industries come up, diversify. More in industries less in agriculture. Dual economy 4. Drive to maturity stage→ having industries and diversify them, manufacturing in all areas . moves from being dependent to self sustaining, standard of living improves 5. Age of Mass consumption → full functioning economy, lifestyles has improved

25.1.2. Dependency theory→ share the same concept Structuralist school of thought

26. Dependency theory:

26.1. Correlation between developed and developing countries: the more developed countries develop the less the developing countries get

26.2. The cheaper the developed countries pay for raw material from the developing countries, the more profit the developed countries have

27. Capitalism is the single most productive economic system in history

27.1. Problem: how it distributes its process/product Who gets what

27.2. Very few at the top=get almost all the wealth

27.3. NAFTA allows america to go to mexico to get goods then sell it in US

27.4. NAFTA allows both countries to benefit on paper

27.5. ISL Import Substitution Industries→ subsides the local company, don’t make them pay taxes for a certain amount of years