Literature Review

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Literature Review by Mind Map: Literature Review

1. Introduction

1.1. American College Students as a demographic are likely to see fame as a platform for influence that can enhance a message.

1.2. Literature Review Main Points

1.2.1. Overview of the American College Student

1.2.2. The concept of fame and a scholarly definition

1.2.3. A discussion of influence and what that means

1.2.4. Overview of the He for She campaign and MAMA Hope vs similar message said by a famous person

1.3. Hypothesis

1.4. Hypothesis- American college students perceive Famous Americans as more credible than other people.

2. MAMA Hope Men for Women vs He for She Campaign

2.1. Sources

2.1.1. Men for Women Campaign - MAMA HOPE

2.1.2. He For She Campaign

2.1.2.1. The research leads us to believe that because of the american college students dependency in the digital age and the changing definition of what fame and being famous for being famous, the accessibility to information has created a platform for celebrity opinion to gain more traction on a digital stage than normal, possibly more educated or credible sources on the same subject matter

2.1.2.2. https://www.youtube.com/user/heforshe

3. Overview of the American College Student

3.1. SOURCES

3.1.1. The growth Digital Culture is the most influential event in the lives of College Students Today

3.1.2. http://monitor.icef.com/2012/12/new-insights-on-characteristics-of-us-college-students/ - Generation on a Tightrope: A portrait of Today's College Student

3.1.2.1. College Students are dependent

3.1.2.1.1. - Going to College to get Job training and skills to work rather than going to college to develop personal values or learn how to communicate with different people.

3.1.2.1.2. - Are more accepting of people and optimistic about the future than any generation before, but fear personal failure more than any other age demographic

3.1.2.1.3. - Only 5% of college students have less than a C average even though almost half have had to take remedial courses

3.1.2.1.4. -1 in 5 college students are in touch with their parents 3 or more times a day and 40% speak to them once a day

3.1.2.1.5. Levine and Dean stated in their book “in 24/7 contact with a tribe of friends, family and acquaintances via social media, they are more alone in many of the activities they pursue,”

3.1.3. Pew Survey with College Board and National Writing Project

3.1.3.1. Technology is a vital part of College Students Lives - not necessarily positive all the time

3.1.3.1.1. In the Pew survey, which was done in conjunction with the College Board and the National Writing Project, nearly 90% of 2,462 teachers surveyed said that digital technologies were creating “an easily distracted generation with short attention spans.”

4. Fame

4.1. Sources

4.1.1. WHAT IS FAME? THE MOST POWERFUL FORCE IN OUR OPRAHFIED UNIVERSE - http://pop.fame101book.com/docs/fame-101-chpt1.pdf

4.1.1.1. "Fame is our society’s most powerful force; celebrities, those that have it, are the super elite of our culture. If you doubt the concept, drop in on any DC cocktail party and watch Nobel Prize winners, powerful Congressmen and Fortune 500 board chairs become blithering idiots when introduced to Brad Pitt or Tiger Woods or John Grisham" - Jay Jessup

4.1.1.2. Fame is not incredible beauty or unfathomable riches, but rather the ability to make maximum use of your authentic self by becoming a media trained, polished, informed and prepared showman that gets you an invitation into society's super elite

4.1.1.2.1. Fame is way beyond money, although it can deliver wealth as one of its benefits. It’s a powerful tool you can use to get many things that money can’t buy

4.1.1.2.2. Fame is based to some extent on showmanship. The successful fame seekers use entertainment industry concepts and techniques to promote themselves.

4.1.1.2.3. Fame is key to admission into the special group we call society’s super elite. You’re not invited to join this community; when you create a place for yourself you simply become part of it.

4.1.1.2.4. Fame determines who succeeds and who doesn’t in many cases. It’s an unbeatable competitive edge in any industry or life sector.

4.1.2. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy006.nclive.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=b4a729eb-470b-4a1f-a719-2230b989ded1%40sessionmgr4006&vid=11&hid=4105

4.1.2.1. As we note above, celebrity and marketing have never been far apart, and many of today’s aspects of celebrity are not entirely new. From Alexander The Great to David Beckham, there has been a suspicion that some noted figures were also talented self-publicists, and the discomfort readers might feel in having those two names juxtaposed in the same sentence reflects the persistent tensions that circulate around the legitimacy of celebrity, fame, renown; however, it is conceived. C

4.1.3. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy006.nclive.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=b4a729eb-470b-4a1f-a719-2230b989ded1%40sessionmgr4006&vid=22&hid=4105

4.1.3.1. in the 21st century,fame and celebrity are no longer restricted to a person’s achievements, or work in the entertainment and sports fields - Chong Ju Choi, Ron Berger

5. Explanation of Influence

5.1. SOURCES

5.1.1. http://www.jstor.org.proxy006.nclive.org/stable/27749800

5.1.1.1. The idea that because of technology and the growing accessability to information, people are famous for being famous these days, and it;s less based on how they got there and more that its easy to listen to them because they are there.

5.1.1.2. This younger generation is experiencing a combination of consumer crazes and bandwagon effects (Cohan, 2001) along with the belief that global fame based on the global internet adds economic and business value to individuals and society.

5.1.1.3. The global internet has accelerated this phenomenon of bandwagon effects, network communities and celebrity obsession, or the obsession with anyone who is ‘‘famous’’ over the internet

5.1.1.4. "Certain tendencies and traits get replicated in a culture on a massive scale…replicated traits called memes, once they take root and spread, replicate whether or not there is some actual benefit to society, like a virus." - It's not that what people are saying has become more accurate or credible, but rather our changing world has changed the platform for people to state their message

5.1.2. http://www.academia.edu/7989620/Impact_of_celebrity_endorsement_on_brand_loyalty_case_study_of_MTN_Saka_i_don_port_advert

5.1.2.1. This theory was formulated by Hovland C, and Weiss W, in 1951. The theory holds that the perceived credibility of the originator determines how the receiver will react to the message. This implies that the attitude that the audience display when they receive a message to a great extent is dependent on how they see the source; how and what they perceive the source to be.

6. Conclusion

6.1. Hypothesis- American college students perceive Famous Americans as more credible than other people.

6.2. CASE STUDY RECREATION - http://www.academia.edu/7989620/Impact_of_celebrity_endorsement_on_brand_loyalty_case_study_of_MTN_Saka_i_don_port_advert