Jewish kingdom was independent with jewish kings ruling as representatives of Rome
Some jews allied with the Romans and accepted their plans to "Romanize" Jerusalem
Jewish ruler Herod was "Romanized" and his loyalties were divided. He angered many jews with the way he ruled.
Herod's death began a revolt against Rome.
The revolt lasted 10 years.
Rome finally took control of the Jewish kingdom and made it the province of Judea.
Romans gave control of religious matters and local affairs to the Jewish court called the Sanhedrin.
Zealots wanted to rid their homeland of the Romans.
Another group believed that the Messiah was soon to appear.
He was born in Bethlehem in Judea around 6-4 B.C.
He was both a Jew and Roman subject.
He was baptized by the prophet know as John the Baptist.
His teachings contained Jewish traditions such as monotheism and the principles of the Ten Commandments.
He emphasized God's personal relationship to each human being.
He stressed the importance of people's love for God, their neighbors, their enemies, and themselves.
Also taught that God would end wickedness in the world, and there would be an eternal kingdom for people after death.
His message was found in the Gospels, some of which are thought to have been written by Jesus' apostles.
Roman and Jewish leaders concerned about his popularity.
His teachings were viewed as blasphemy by the chief Jewish priests.
Roman governor Pontius Pilate said he challenged the authority of Rome, had Jesus arrested, and sentenced him to death by crucification.
Three days after being placed in tomb, Jesus' body disappeared.
A living Jesus began appearing to his followers.
One day he ascended into heaven which made the apostles really believe Jesus was the Messiah.
The first apostle Peter led the followers in spreading the teachings of Jesus.
The cross he was crucified on became a symbol for their beliefs.
Paul spread the idea of Christianity from city to city around the eastern Mediterranean.
He wrote Epistles to groups of believers.
He stressed that Jesus was the son of God who died for people's sins.
He declared that Christianity should welcome all converts, Jews or Gentile.
A group of Zealots rebelled against Rome in A.D. 66.
In A.D. 70 Rome stormed Jerusalem and destoryed the Temple complex, and only the western portion of the wall remained.
Half a million Jews died in this revolt.
Another revolt attempt happened in A.D. 132 which resulted in another half million Jews' death.
Many Jews were driven from their homeland into exile (Diaspora).
Christians refused to worship Roman gods which was seen as opposition to Roman rule.
Roman rulers used Christians as scapegoats for political and economic troubles.
As the Pax Romana came to an end, Christians were exiled, imprisoned, or executed through crucifiction, burning, or being fed to wild animals.
Many Christians and some non-Christians thought those persecuted were martyrs.
It embraced all people.
It gave hope to the powerless.
It appealed to those who were repelled by the extravagances of Rome.
It offered a personal relationship with a loving God.
It promised eternal life after death.
The religion eventually received a structure.
Locally, a priest led each small group of Christians.
A bishop supervised several local churches.
The apostle Peter was considered the first bishop in Rome, and later bishops of Rome claimed to be his heir.
Peter was claimed to be the first pope (father or head of Christian Church).
The bishop of Rome was the leader of the whole Church and Rome was the center of the Church.
Constantine was fighting three rivals to become emperor of Rome, an when he prayed for help he saw a cross of light with the inscription "In this sign, conquer."
He won the battles after putting the cross on his soldier's shields, and gave the credit for success to the Christian God.
He ended the persecution of Christians, nad declared Christianity as a religion approved by the emperor (Edict of Milan).
Emperor Theodosius made it the empire's official religion in 380.
Disagreements began to arise between the followers of Christianity.
Any belief that contradicted the basic teachings was called heresy.
The Church leaders decided to set a single, official standard of belief.
The New Testament, which contained the Gospels, the Epistles of Paul, and other socuments, defined the standard of belief.
Constantine called the Church leaders to a meeting to write the Nicene Creed, which defined the basic beliefs of the Church.
Several early writers and scholars also influenced the church and became known as the Fathers of the Church.
Augustine was one of the most important Fathers of the Church.
Augustine taught that while humans needed the grade of God to be saved, God was merciful and gave his grace freely.
He also wrote a book called "The City of God" after Rome was destroyed.
He wrote that the fate of cities like Rome weren't important because the city of God couldn't be destroyed.