14 IDEA Categories

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14 IDEA Categories by Mind Map: 14 IDEA Categories

1. High-Incidence Disabilities

1.1. Speech and Language Impairment

1.1.1. Definition: communication disorder that adversely affects a child's educational disorder.

1.1.1.1. Stuttering

1.1.1.2. Impaired Articulation

1.1.1.3. language or voice impairment

1.1.2. Teacher Strategies

1.1.2.1. Speak directly to student

1.1.2.2. Use active listening

1.1.2.3. Work at students' pace

1.1.2.4. Encourage reading and writing daily

1.1.2.5. Be patient

1.1.2.6. Use gestures that support understanding

1.1.3. Assistive Technologies

1.1.3.1. Augmentative or Alternative Communication Devices

1.2. Learning Disabilities

1.2.1. Definition: disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language

1.2.1.1. May manifest in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations

1.2.1.1.1. perceptual disabilities

1.2.1.1.2. Brain injury

1.2.1.1.3. minimal brain dysfunction

1.2.1.1.4. dyslexia

1.2.1.1.5. developmental aphasia

1.2.1.2. Teacher Strategies

1.2.1.2.1. Do not present two pieces of information together that may be perceptually confusing. For example, do not teach the spelling of ie words (believe) and ei words (perceive) in the same day.

1.2.1.2.2. Highlight the important characteristics of new material. For example, underline or use bold letters to draw a student's attention to the same sound pattern presented in a group of reading or spelling words (mouse, house, round)

1.2.1.2.3. Maintain attention by

1.2.1.2.4. Use prompts and cues to draw attention to important information. Types of cues include:

1.2.1.2.5. Teach students a plan for identifying and high-lighting important information for themselves

1.2.1.2.6. Teachers may need to teach the following memory strategies to students with learning disabilities:

1.3. Emotional Disturbances

1.3.1. Definition: condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, adversely affecting educational performance

1.3.1.1. an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors

1.3.1.2. an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers

1.3.1.3. a general or pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression

1.3.1.4. inappropriate types of behaviors or feelings under normal circumstances

1.3.1.5. tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems

1.3.1.6. schizophrenia

1.3.2. Teaching Strategies

1.3.2.1. Consistent and specific praise

1.3.2.2. Build relationships on:

1.3.2.2.1. Empathy

1.3.2.2.2. Trust

1.3.2.2.3. Respect

2. Low-Incidence Disabilities

2.1. Intellectual Disability

2.1.1. Definition: significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

2.1.1.1. Teacher Strategies

2.1.1.1.1. Teach one concept or activity component at a time

2.1.1.1.2. Teach one step at a time to help support memorization and sequencing

2.1.1.1.3. Teach students in small groups, or one-on-one, if possible

2.1.1.1.4. Always provide multiple opportunities to practice skills in a number of different settings

2.1.1.1.5. Use physical and verbal prompting to guide correct responses, and provide specific verbal praise to reinforce these responses

2.1.1.2. Assistive Technologies

2.1.1.2.1. Low-Tech Manipulatives i.e blocks/counters

2.1.1.2.2. Audio/Visual Software

2.1.2. Video

2.2. Hearing Impairments

2.2.1. Definition: permanent or fluctuation impairment in hearing but not deafness

2.2.1.1. Strategies

2.2.1.1.1. regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist

2.2.1.1.2. amplification systems

2.2.1.1.3. services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language

2.2.1.1.4. favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading

2.2.1.1.5. captioned films/videos

2.2.1.1.6. assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction

2.2.2. Case Study: Caroline's Story

2.3. Orthopedic Impairments

2.3.1. Definition: a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance

2.3.1.1. fractures or burns resulting in contractures

2.3.1.2. amputations

2.3.1.3. cerebral palsy

2.3.1.4. congenital anomalies - clubfoot, absence of limb.

2.3.1.5. disease - bone tuberculosis

2.3.2. Teaching Strategies

2.3.2.1. Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements

2.3.2.2. Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills

2.3.2.3. Securing suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices

2.3.2.4. Awareness of medical condition and its affect on the student (such as getting tired quickly)

2.3.3. Assistive Technology

2.3.3.1. Devices to access information

2.3.3.1.1. speech recognition software

2.3.3.1.2. screen reading software

2.3.3.1.3. Communication boards

2.3.3.1.4. academic software packages for students with disabilities

2.3.3.2. Devices for Positioning and Mobility

2.3.3.2.1. canes

2.3.3.2.2. Walkers

2.3.3.2.3. crutches

2.3.3.2.4. Wheelchairs

2.3.3.2.5. specialized exercise equipment

2.3.3.2.6. specialized chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development

2.4. Visual Impairments including Blindness

2.4.1. Definition: An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

2.4.1.1. Low vision – students use their vision as their primary sensory channel

2.4.1.2. Functionally blind – students can use limited vision for functional tasks but need their tactile and auditory channels for learning

2.4.1.3. Totally blind – students use tactile and auditory channels for learning and functional tasks

2.4.2. Teaching Strategies

2.4.2.1. Encourage Independence

2.4.2.2. Ensure safety in classroom i.e chairs tucked in, cupboards closed etc.

2.4.2.3. Control classroom lighting and seating preferences

2.4.2.4. Use verbal rather than visual clues

2.4.2.5. Braille or recorded media

2.4.3. Assistive Technologies

2.4.3.1. Computer adaptations

2.4.3.1.1. Braille translation software and equipment

2.4.3.1.2. Braille printer

2.4.3.1.3. Screen reader

2.4.3.1.4. Screen enlargement software

2.4.3.2. Adaptive devices

2.4.3.2.1. Braille notetakers

2.4.3.2.2. Optical character reader

2.4.3.2.3. Electronic braillewriter

2.4.3.2.4. Talking calculators

2.4.3.3. Optical devices

2.4.3.3.1. Magnifiers

2.4.3.3.2. Telescopes

2.4.4. A Child with Blindness -- The Planson Family -- Our Special Life --

2.5. Deaf-Blindness

2.5.1. Assistive Technologies

2.5.1.1. Computer adaptations

2.5.1.1.1. Braille translation software and equipment

2.5.1.1.2. Braille printer

2.5.1.1.3. Screen reader

2.5.1.1.4. Screen enlargement software

2.5.1.2. Adaptive devices

2.5.1.2.1. Braille notetakers

2.5.1.2.2. Optical character reader

2.5.1.2.3. Electronic braillewriter

2.5.1.2.4. Talking calculators

2.5.1.3. Optical devices

2.5.1.3.1. Magnifiers

2.5.1.3.2. Telescopes

2.5.2. Definition; Simultaneous hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

2.5.2.1. Teacher Strategies

2.5.2.1.1. Individuals who are deafblind will often need touch in order for them to be sure that their partner shares their focus of attention.

2.5.2.1.2. Exploring objects should be done in a "nondirective" way, allowing the individual who is deafblind to have control

2.5.2.1.3. The individual may have very slow response times. Therefore, the teacher should allow time for the student to respond.

2.5.2.1.4. Symbolic communication can be utilized by individuals who are deafblind. The principal communication systems include:

2.6. Deafness

2.6.1. Definition: Hearing impairment even with amplification that adversely affects linguistic processing through hearing.

2.6.2. Teacher Strategies

2.6.2.1. Services for sign language

2.6.2.2. Good seating to aid lip reading

2.6.2.3. Captioned Video

2.6.2.4. Amplification systems : Induction loops

2.7. Other Health Impairments

2.7.1. Definition: Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems

2.7.1.1. tuberculosis

2.7.1.2. sickle cell anemia

2.7.1.3. rheumatic fever

2.7.2. Teacher Strategies

2.7.2.1. Allow extra time for these students to shift from one activity or environment to the next.

2.7.2.2. Teach these students specific techniques for organizing their thoughts and materials. Organize the classroom accordingly, and keep all materials in permanent locations for easy access.

2.7.2.3. Allow extra time for finishing assignments or for testing.

2.7.2.4. For more complex activities, simplify steps to make them more manageable.

2.7.2.5. Seat the student close to the teacher and away from any peers that might be distracting.

2.7.2.6. Post a daily and weekly schedule that clearly delineates each activity. These schedules can then be used as prompts to direct the student back on task.

2.7.2.7. Keep these schedules as consistent as possible, and keep unstructured time at a minimum.

2.8. Developmental Delay

2.8.1. Definition: means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.

2.8.2. Teacher Strategies

2.8.2.1. Early Identification

2.8.2.2. Special Ed. through IEP

2.8.3. Assistive Technology

2.8.3.1. As each child is evaluated, the assistive technology that will be necessary for the child to learn will vary.

2.8.3.1.1. These items may range from a daily calendar made of photographs showing routine activities, to a rocking chair, a set of headphones for blocking noises, or other tools that enable the express needs or interests.

2.9. Traumatic Brain Injury

2.9.1. Definition: As each child is evaluated, the assistive technology that will be necessary for the child to learn will vary.

2.9.2. Teacher Strategies

2.9.2.1. Provide repetition and consistency

2.9.2.2. Demonstrate new tasks, state instructions, and provide examples to illustrate ideas and concepts

2.9.2.3. Avoid figurative language

2.9.2.4. Reinforce lengthening periods of attention to appropriate tasks

2.9.2.5. Probe skill acquisition frequently and provide repeated practice

2.9.2.6. Teach compensatory strategies for increasing memory

2.9.2.7. Be prepared for students' reduced stamina and increased fatigue and provide rest breaks as needed

2.9.2.8. Keep the environment as distraction-free as possible

2.9.3. Assistive Technology

2.9.3.1. Devices for Positioning and Mobility

2.9.3.1.1. canes

2.9.3.1.2. Walkers

2.9.3.1.3. crutches

2.9.3.1.4. Wheelchairs

2.9.3.1.5. specialized beds

2.9.3.1.6. specialized chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development

2.9.3.2. Devices for accessing information

2.9.3.2.1. speech recognition software

2.9.3.2.2. screen reading software

2.9.3.2.3. tinted overlays for reading (this may help with visual processing)

2.9.3.2.4. academic software packages for students with disabilities

2.9.3.3. Devices for Memory and Organization

2.9.3.3.1. calendar boards

2.9.3.3.2. schedule organizers

2.9.3.3.3. voice organizers

2.9.3.3.4. medication reminders

2.9.3.3.5. Smartphones

2.9.3.3.6. specialized watches

2.10. Autism Spectrum Disorders

2.10.1. Definition: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that can have a significant impact on a student’s communication skills, social interactions, and behaviors.

2.10.2. Teacher Strategies

2.10.2.1. individualized interventions

2.10.2.2. instructional materials to contain visual supports and cues

2.10.2.3. Picture symbols

2.10.2.4. delineations between work and leisure areas

2.10.2.5. use instructional goals

2.10.2.6. form strong connections with the parents

2.11. Multiple Disabilities

2.11.1. Defintion: As the term suggests, this disability category encompasses a combination of conditions that may impact a student's ability to learn and achieve success in an academic setting. Students with severe disabilities are typically included under this umbrella terminology.

2.11.2. Teacher Strategies

2.11.2.1. Identify learners needs

2.11.2.2. Encourage independence

2.11.2.3. Use appropriate assistive technology

3. Resources: http://sinche.uom.gr/sites/default/files/14_disability_categories_under_idea.pdf https://sites.google.com/site/inclusionresourcenotebook/home http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#id http://www.projectidealonline.org/