Disenchantment & Ideology

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Disenchantment & Ideology by Mind Map: Disenchantment & Ideology

1. Evolution Theory

1.1. Malthus

1.1.1. Idea of Struggle

1.1.2. Survival of the fittest Best adaptations survive

1.2. Lyell

1.2.1. New species to replace the extinct

1.2.2. Look at the present to explain the past

1.3. Smith

1.3.1. Idea of invisible hand(?) (Free market)

1.4. Lamarck

1.4.1. No extinction only transformation Vertical evolution

1.4.2. Genisis Purpose of perfection Linear

1.5. Darwin

1.5.1. Voyage on the Beagle Noted animals adapt to environment

1.5.2. Wife/cousin Emma Rich Orthodox Christian Supported Darwin

1.5.3. Origin of Species 1859 5 Theories Evolution as such Common Descent Multiplication of species Gradualism Natural selection No focus on humans but on organisms in general

1.5.4. Rejects Supernatural phenomena Centralism Theology Determinism Theory based on chance

1.5.5. Created Anthropocentrism New conception of humans We come from the apes New scientific foundation of ethics Social Darwinism New thought, populism

1.5.6. Nature was first organic now it's a struggle for survival

1.6. Herbert Spencer

1.6.1. Survival of the best adapted Better name according to Spencer

1.6.2. Social Darwinism Theory applied to society Mostly economy

1.6.3. No state regulation Free market Only hard workers should "survive"

1.7. Social Darwinism

1.7.1. Racisme Bad genes Bad generations should die Survival of the fittest

2. Weber 1864-1920

2.1. Background

2.1.1. Travels through Germany

2.1.2. Worried about politics

2.1.3. Part of Association for social politics

2.2. Solution

2.2.1. Integrate the working class

2.2.2. State had to embrace socialism

2.3. -Lisms

2.3.1. Socialism Equality

2.3.2. Nationalism Brotherhood

2.3.3. Liberalism Freedom

2.4. Rationalism

2.4.1. Practical Goal oriented action

2.4.2. Substatial Value oriented action

2.4.3. Formal Decision based on rule and law

2.4.4. Theoratical Logic deduction Scientific

2.5. Protestant ethics

2.5.1. Always feeling of Guilt

2.5.2. God loves hard work

2.5.3. All work is holy

2.5.4. Community before family

2.5.5. No miracles Science to explain

2.5.6. Predestination Succesfull as a sign of being chosen

2.6. Capitalism

2.6.1. Rationality Disenchanted Iron Cage Dehumanizeing Machine like

2.6.2. Efficiency

2.6.3. Bureaucratic

3. Mass Democracy

3.1. Weber

3.1.1. Bureaucracy = modernstate 4 necessities Hierarchy Division of labour Consistency Qualification (by law) Gives people citizenship A sense of belonging

3.1.2. Knowledge is power Laws have authority

3.1.3. Positive Professionals will be elite

3.2. Michels

3.2.1. Moderation theory Bureaucracy leads to oligarchy/elite An elite

3.2.2. Pessimistic Elite will be power craving people

3.3. Democracy evolution

3.3.1. Until 1860 More personal Debates among people Civil rights Rational

3.3.2. 1870-1920 Right to vote Mass democracy Political rights & parties Weber & Michels Need for rationalisation

3.3.3. After 1920 Social rights Health care Citizenship Legal Political Social Marx & Engels Equality and socialism needed Liberalism still oppressed

4. Everything else

4.1. Concepts

4.1.1. Republican Democracy Collective thinking General will Forced participation Active citizenship Solidarity

4.1.2. Individual Choice to participate

4.1.3. Liberal Democracy Matter of trial and error Passive citizenship Freedom as essence in spontaneity Hobbes & Locke

5. Industrial Revolution 1760

5.1. What?

5.1.1. Application of scientific knowledge to the problem of production

5.1.2. Shifting from hands to Machines

5.1.3. Different interpretations Technology Iron Production Water Power Market Prices on new Inventions

5.1.4. Radical changes in industries Textile Chemical Iron & Steal

5.2. Causes

5.2.1. Stable country Parliamentary monarchy

5.2.2. A lot of coal !

5.2.3. Colonies

5.2.4. High wages Wealth Investments

5.2.5. Population growth

5.2.6. Mindset Open to progress Individualism Hard workers

5.2.7. Revolution 1688 Class-system created workers available Glorious revolution

5.2.8. Agricultural Revolution Privatized land enclosure Reconstruct land Liberal economy More mass production Small farms gone

5.2.9. Spinning (Jenny) Engine 1764 Textile Factories Cotton Mills (1780)

5.3. Why a 'Revolution'?

5.3.1. Economic change Capatalism

5.3.2. Globalisation Colonies Export

5.3.3. Fabrics and Engines

5.3.4. Unplanned ( / unwanted)

5.3.5. Big change in short time

5.3.6. Social&Mental structure society changed

5.3.7. Healthcare Free

5.4. Consequences

5.4.1. Capitalism Rights around work-conditions Eventually New middel class All about profit time is money

5.4.2. Less farmers femine danger

5.4.3. Family lifes Children working Small houses

5.4.4. Healthcare

5.4.5. Telegraph invented

5.4.6. Transport Locomotive Bicycle Mapping

5.4.7. Beginning of pollution

5.4.8. Globalization Competition between nations

5.4.9. Luddites Against technology They burn factories

5.5. Nowadays

5.5.1. Globalization

5.5.2. Wealth

5.5.3. Capitalist mindset Focus on Growth

5.5.4. Healthcare

5.5.5. Inovations

5.5.6. Cities

5.5.7. (Women)Rights

5.5.8. Education

6. French Revolution1789

6.1. Why?

6.1.1. Financial crisis Marie Antoinette Clothes Gambling Support American Revolution Taxation problem Nobility refused to pay

6.1.2. People mad at the king king fired Necker

6.1.3. Ferturnity, liberty and equality

6.2. Phases

6.2.1. The Moderate '89-'91 State General 1 vote per estate 3 Estates Third Estate 1791 New constitution Many discussions and gossip King supports a revolution

6.2.2. The Radical '91-'94 1793 King executed Why Create a common belief Jacobins started it Voice of the people Robbers Piere

6.2.3. The Directory '94-'99 Third Constitution Republic 5 men Directory Napoleon overthrow France was unstable

6.2.4. 1804 Napoleon crowned himself France = Empire Constitution of the year 8

6.3. Communism

6.3.1. Freedom first Equality later

6.4. Napoleon already loved

6.5. Ancient vs Post-Rev.

6.5.1. Power by birth vs Power by money

6.5.2. Class system vs No classes (intention)

6.5.3. Church&State vs Separation

6.5.4. Religious social contracts vs Social contract

6.5.5. 3 parties in State Generale vs More parties

6.5.6. . vs Feeling of Citizenship Equality abolished slavery Caucasian Males part in politics

6.6. Democracy

6.6.1. Totalitarianism End goal state has to go Reduce life to Politics Totalitarian Absolute and collective purpose Perfect scheme of things Too Radical Part of tradition/history

6.6.2. Liberalism Politics = error Society = experiment

6.7. Politics of Modernity

6.7.1. Design society Based on certain ideals

6.7.2. Separation church&state Live happy Individual

6.7.3. Mass Politics Equal

6.7.4. Ethics

6.7.5. Multiple parties Different ideals represented

6.7.6. More National

6.7.7. More intellectual

6.7.8. Meritocracy

6.7.9. Private Propert

6.8. Jacobins

6.8.1. Equality first Freedom later

7. Tocqueville&Democracy

7.1. Who?

7.1.1. French Diplomate

7.1.2. Died 1859 Tuberculose

7.1.3. Influenced by Voltaire Rousseau Montesquieu Individualism

7.2. Development of Democ.

7.2.1. 3 causes America Geographical New space No enemies Already modern equipment Free from Tradition Little military forces Minimal diplomatic obligations Laws & Government Structure Principal of sovereignity General principles Decentralized power Checks&Balances Bicameralism Plurality in parties Trias Politica Voluntary organisation Freedom of press Capatalism Manners, customs, religion Religion Faith Segregation

7.3. Equality

7.3.1. America Protestant

7.3.2. Equality planned Long before democracy

7.3.3. More people gained wealth Equality possible

7.3.4. Toc wished Social Equalization

7.4. America vs France

7.4.1. Decentralized power vs Centralized power Trias Politica

7.4.2. General ideas represented by parties vs Idealism within parties

7.4.3. Educated vs Uneducated

7.4.4. Religion possible with democracy vs Religion attacked/enemy

7.4.5. Circulation of meterial vs People held on the property

7.4.6. Collective goal vs No collective goal

7.4.7. . vs Constant struggle old vs new Constructed ideas implemented

7.4.8. Equal born vs. Materialistic 'equality'

7.5. Toc

7.5.1. Succes = Being wealthy Capitalism needed for democracy Wealthy people often seen as being right not true

7.5.2. Without right conditions Democracy becomes Despotism

7.5.3. Atomism Danger of too much individualism

7.6. Democratization and Capitalism

7.6.1. It advances and undermines

8. Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels

8.1. Who?

8.1.1. Marx Sociologist&economist 2 Periods Youthful period Older period Born in Trier Seen as radicalist thus banned from Ended up in London influenced by Hegel By social question of the IR

8.1.2. Engels Capitalist financed Marx Factory holder in Manchester Wrote Conditions of the English working class Worked with statistics Comparing factories to coutnryside

8.2. Critics on Capitalism

8.2.1. Modern-work Too specialised Alienation

8.2.2. Modern-work Insecure Fear of being replaced

8.2.3. Antagonistic oppressor vs oppressed

8.2.4. Capitalist vs Proletariat New class from farmers, handworkers etc.

8.2.5. It opposes ideologies on society e.g. time is money Happy/wealthy means money

8.2.6. Profit is theft Exploitation of workers

8.2.7. It will leas to a revolution by the majority self-destruction of the capitalist system

8.2.8. Only religion keeps people going Religion is the soul of the soulless conditions Religion is opium for the people Gives falls hope for the people Religion as a sort of protest against alienation

8.3. Ideas

8.3.1. Base of society = economic forces & relations, production relations it defines Class Struggle To change society change the base

8.3.2. Communist Manifesto 1848 Propeganda pamphlet Main theme Class struggle Labor Context Revolution in Europe Bigger Middle Class Liberal forces arise Marx Production FOR human development Communist revolution will be the end goal Solution No private property Centralized Incomes shared equally Free public education People allowed to develop multiple talents Leisure time Abolish nationality

8.3.3. Condition of the British Workingclass Conditions Low wages Long hours Bad Health Child labor Poverty Small houses Famine Why French Revolution Industrial Revolution Everything is in constant change Influenced by Hegel

8.4. Theoratical concepts

8.4.1. Materialism Engine of industry machinery

8.4.2. Dialectics Way of thinking Progress because of antagonism

8.4.3. Society Defined by classes

8.4.4. Historical development Ongoing with patterns

9. The New Inequality

9.1. Society as an organic body

9.2. Shift from

9.2.1. Ethonology Culture

9.2.2. To Anthropology Race

9.3. 18th C

9.3.1. Human equal to nature

9.4. 19th C

9.4.1. Human superior

9.5. Theocrats

9.5.1. Disenchantment Since enlightenment Rationalism Human unity Traditional image Monogenism Organic human New image Polygenism

9.5.2. Men driven by Expression of their traditional social natures

9.6. Human sciences

9.6.1. Appeared 18thC and 19thC

9.6.2. Mind and body No longer separated

9.6.3. Concept of equality Spread in 18th C Legal equality Biological equality Christianity Everyone equal in God's eyes 19th C Inequality returned Scepticisme towards FR values Several human sciences born Why human sciences ?

9.7. Saint Simon

9.7.1. Telos of society justifies inequality

9.7.2. Organic society Individuals should subordinate himself to the function of the whole No competition Everyone has a place to belong Harmony as answer to the chaos of FR Comte agrees

9.7.3. 3 Social functions Brain man Rational, Intellectual Sensory man Sensory-religious people Motor man Production people Mix of the three leads to Degeneration Bad traits dominate the good

9.8. August Comte

9.8.1. 3 stages Theological stage Desire to explain with something "God"-ish Based on moral judgement, virtue & sin Metaphysical stage Critical & scientific Abstract principles to explain nature Positive stage Cut between abstract and reality looks for laws

9.8.2. Positivism pioneer Philosophy based on science Positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena

9.8.3. All science can be reduced to Principles of natural sciences Development of science = progress

9.8.4. Understanding laws In order to improve society

9.9. Thomas Hobbes

9.9.1. Materialistic (utilitarian) view

9.9.2. People driven bij pleasure or pain Physical drives

9.10. Descartes & Locke

9.10.1. Autonomous inner directed thinking self

9.10.2. Decartes Deductive rationalism new foundation for certain knowledge

9.10.3. Locke Possessive individualism Autonomous self