Process And Threads (Chapter 4)

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Process And Threads (Chapter 4) by Mind Map: Process And Threads (Chapter 4)

1. OS Management Of Application Execution

1.1. Resources are made available to multiple applications.

1.2. The processor and I/O devices can be used efficiently.

2. OS Process

2.1. Program

2.1.1. Passive entity such as contents of a file stored on disk.

2.2. Process

2.2.1. Active entity with a program counter specifying the next instruction to be executed.

3. Process Elements

3.1. Program code.

3.2. A set of data associated with that code.

4. Process Elements

4.1. Identifier

4.2. State

4.3. Priority

4.4. Program Counter

4.5. Memory Pointers

4.6. Context data

4.7. I/O status Information

4.8. Accounting Information

5. Process Control Block

5.1. Contains the process elements.

5.2. Created and managed by the operating system.

6. Process States

6.1. Trace

6.1.1. sequence of instructions that execute for that process

6.2. Dispatcher

6.2.1. small program that switches the processor from one process to another

7. Two-State Process Model

7.1. A process may be in one of two states

7.1.1. Running The process is currently being executed.

7.1.2. Not-running

8. Process Creation

8.1. When a new process is to be added to those currently being managed processes.

8.2. Operating system builds the data structures.

8.3. Process Spawning

8.3.1. The OS creates a process at the explicit request of another process .

9. Process Termination

9.1. Means that a process to indicate its completion

9.2. Reasons for Process Termination

9.2.1. Normal copletion

9.2.2. Time limit exceeded

9.2.3. Memory unavailable

9.2.4. Time overrun

9.2.5. I/O failure

9.2.6. Invalid instruction

10. Five-State Process Model

10.1. New

10.1.1. A rpocess is being created

10.2. Ready

10.2.1. A process that is prepared to be executed when given chance

10.3. Running

10.3.1. A process that is currently being execuited

10.4. Blocked

10.4.1. A process that cannot execute until some events occur, such as I/O completion.

10.5. Exit

10.5.1. A process that has finished its execution.

11. Processes And Threads

11.1. Resource Ownership

11.2. Scheduling/Execution

11.3. Unit of dispatching is referred to as a thread or lightweight process

11.3.1. Thread is a basic unit of CPU utilization.

11.4. Multithreading

11.4.1. The ability of an OS to support multiple, concurrent paths of execution within a single process.

12. Single Threaded Approaches

12.1. concept of a thread is not recognized

13. Multithreaded Approaches

13.1. Java run-time.

14. Benefits Of Threads

14.1. Takes less time to create a new thread than a process

14.2. Less time to terminate a thread than a process

14.3. Switching between two threads takes less time than switching between processes

14.4. Threads enhance efficiency in communication between programs.

15. OS Control Structures

15.1. Four different types of tables maintained by the OS

15.1.1. Memory tables

15.1.2. IO tables

15.1.3. File tables

15.1.4. Process tables