Ethical Theories

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Ethical Theories by Mind Map: Ethical Theories

1. Act Utilitarianism

1.1. Greater pleasure over pain for all

1.2. Attractions

1.2.1. Treats everyone equally

1.3. Limitations

1.3.1. Difficult to measure pleasure/pain

1.3.2. Ignores justice

2. Kantian

2.1. Moral duty

2.2. Two Categorical Imperatives

2.2.1. Universibility

2.2.1.1. Can the maxim be accepted by all?

2.2.2. Humanity

2.2.2.1. Does the maxim treats people as an end?

2.3. Attractions

2.3.1. Human rights

2.4. Limitations

2.4.1. Difficult to define respect

2.4.2. Ignores non-humans

3. Social Contract

3.1. Conform to authorities whom the society chooses

4. Ethical Egoism

4.1. Improve self-well being

4.2. Attractions

4.2.1. Simple, Practical

4.3. Limitations

4.3.1. Ignores rights

4.3.2. Contradicts core moral beliefs

5. Virtue

5.1. Aristotle

5.1.1. Courage

5.2. Ethics of care

5.2.1. Love

5.3. Mencius

5.3.1. Righteousness

5.4. Attractions

5.4.1. Includes the character and not just actions

5.5. Limitations

5.5.1. No clear guidance on right/wrong

5.5.2. No agreement on virtues

6. Rawl's Justice

6.1. first principle

6.1.1. equal rights

6.2. second principle

6.2.1. social and economic inequalities to rearranged

6.2.1.1. greatest benefit to least advantage

6.2.1.2. Fair equality of opportunity

7. Nozick's entitlement

7.1. Pursue own's interest with minimal government intervention

7.2. Government should only protect people from force, fraud. (watchman)

7.3. Justice in acquisition

7.3.1. Acquire unowned natural resources through own labour

7.4. Justice in transfer

7.4.1. Voluntarily transfers as a gift

7.5. Rectification of injustice

7.5.1. If any of the above fails, need to rectify