Operating System Structure

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Operating System Structure by Mind Map: Operating System  Structure

1. System Calls

1.1. provide the interface between a running program and the operating system

1.1.1. 1. pass the parameter in registers

1.1.2. 2. parameters stored in a block, or table, in memory, and address of block passed as a parameter in a register

1.1.3. 3. parameters placed, or pushed, onto the stack by the program and popped off the stack by the operating system

2. Additional Operating System Functions

2.1. to ensure efficiency system operations

2.1.1. Resource allocation

2.1.2. Accounting

2.1.3. Protection and security

3. Operating System Services

3.1. User interface

3.2. Program execution

3.3. I/O operations

3.4. File-system manipulation

3.5. Communications

3.6. Error detection

4. Parameter passing via table

5. Operating System Design Goals

5.1. User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast.

5.2. System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible.

6. Operating System DesignOperating System Design

6.1. Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful.

6.2.  Start by defining goals and specifications

6.3. The design of the system will be affected by the choice of hardware and the type of system: batch, time shared, single user, multiuser, distributed, real time or general purpose.

7. Benefits of a Microkernel Organization

7.1. Extensibility o Allows the addition of new services

7.2. Flexibility o New features added o Existing features can be subtracted

7.3. Reliability o Modular design o Small microkernel can be rigorously tested

7.4. Portability o Changes needed to port the system to a new processor is changed in the microkernel - not in the other services

8. Microkernel vs. Layered Kernel

9. Microkernel

9.1. small operating system core

9.2. contain only essential core operating system function

9.3. Many services traditionally included in the operating system are now external subsystems

9.3.1. Device drivers

9.3.2. File systems

9.3.3. Virtual memory manager

9.3.4. Windowing system

9.3.5. Security servicesSecurity services

10. Layered Approach

10.1. In layered approach, the Os is divided into a number of layers, each built on top of lower layers.

10.2. Advantage

10.2.1. Simplicity of construction and debugging

10.3. Disadvantage

10.3.1. The careful definition and interaction of the layers

10.3.2. Less efficient

10.4. Layered Operating System

11. Communication Models

11.1. Message passing

11.1.1. In message passing model, communication takes place by means of messages exchanged between the processes.

11.2. Shared memory

11.2.1. In shared memory model, a region of memory that is shared by processor can exchange information by reading and writing data to the shared region.

12. Types of System Calls

12.1. Process control

12.1.1. create/terminate process

12.2. File management

12.2.1. create/delete file

12.3. Device management

12.3.1. request device

12.4. Information maintenance

12.4.1. set time and date

12.5. Communications

12.5.1. create/delete communication connection

12.6. Protection

12.6.1. set permission