Language Development

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Language Development by Mind Map: Language Development

1. Chapter 1

1.1. The brain is a highway of neurons that control how we move our bodies, how we speak and how we live our daily lives'.

1.1.1. The part of the brain that focuses on speech and language is the cortex.

1.1.2. The highway of neurons speeds up when the pathways are regularly used.

1.1.3. We use floor holders to not only hold our turn in conversations but also give our brain more time for the stimulus to travel.

2. Chapter 2

2.1. Morphology is the study of linguistics that deals with the structure and form of the words in the language.

2.1.1. Morphology examines the different morphemes within a word or sentence. Bound morphemes are parts of words that can not stand on their own. For example, plural 's' or prefix 'un.' Free morphemes, like their title, can stand freely. These are the main chunk of the word. For example, 'read' is a free morpheme

2.2. There are different types of words

2.2.1. Function words have no clear lexical meaning and usually consist of words like pronouns and prepositions.

2.2.2. Content words have clear lexical meaning and are usually created regularly. For example, "tweeted" is a content word.

3. Chapter 3

3.1. The brain is made of many areas that contribute to the language process

3.1.1. Broca's area- responsible for producing and processing language

3.1.2. Central Nervous System- consists of the brain and spinal cord The brain stem plays a vital role in relaying information form the body and the higher regions of the brain Cerebellum coordinates muscular activity Midbrain controls higher level functioning like reflexive motor signals The brain is separated into lobes. Occipital lobe deals with sight. Parietal lobe deals with touch, pain and pressure Temporal lobe sorts out the auditory stimulus, including language. Frontal Lobe houses important cognitive skills such as memory, judgement and problem solving.

3.1.3. Peripheral Nervous System- consists of the nerves extending outward

4. Chapter 4

4.1. Language is governed by a rules. Children can pick up on these rules by simply watching and listening to their parents' sentences.

4.1.1. A common stage amongst children is the 2 word stage, which is typically seen around 18 months old. This stage exemplifies the acquiring of these rules. Learning how to put more than one word together demonstrates their understanding of syntactic rules. During this stage, overgeneralization can also be seen. Children may have already acquired irregular past tense words, (i.e. - went) but will begin to use the '-ed' ending (i.e. - goed)

4.1.2. Noam Chomsky believes that grammar is pre-wired. The rules of grammar are universal.

5. Chapter 5

5.1. There are several stages of babbling. This video focused on cooing.

5.1.1. Cooing is seen within two to four months old.

5.1.2. Cooing and laughter mimics the internal state of the infant.

5.1.3. The baby did demonstrate some turn taking. Turn taking can be seen as early as 2-4 months old.

5.1.4. The infant's vocalization are not intentional. They are merely reciprocal and have no intentionality attached.

6. Chapter 9

6.1. LIke stated before, there are many stages of babbling. The first stage is reflexive.

6.1.1. During this stage, the baby is very limited, physically to what sounds they can make.

6.1.2. The sounds the infant made were very deep and far back in the oral tract. This is due to laying on their back and being unable to control their tongue.

7. Chapter 7

7.1. Chapter 7 focuses on preschool aged children and their continuation of language and speech development.

7.1.1. The child uses very descriptive words to help the others understand his experience.

7.1.2. At this age, children are beginning to use more complex sentences. For example, 'because' to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship.

7.1.3. The child also demonstrated his ability to form question sentences. Yes/no questions are the first acquired sentences, but he demonstrates proper format.

7.1.4. The child demonstrates the variability that children at this age have in their number of morphemes.

8. Chapter 8

8.1. Chapter 8 focuses on school ages children and their development of language.

8.1.1. Children use expressive sentences to tell stories. Stories give room for imagination and for the knowledge of language to be demonstrated. Cueing, or indicating the story is starting or ending is common amongst school-aged children. Orienting the audience to each character within the story, like describing their appearance, their thoughts, and other details is also done by school-aged children. A child can demonstrate their creativeness by using dialogue format during their story.

8.1.2. Parents are key in helping with school-aged children. Whether that be prompting the child or assisting the child during story telling.

9. Chapter 6

9.1. Picture choice tasks are key in demonstrating the comprehension of different language elements.

9.1.1. Morphemes acquisition can be measured by asking the child to point to the image displaying 'cats' and not 'a cat.'

9.1.2. The comprehension of syntax can be measured by having the child point to image that correctly displays 'the girl hugging the boy' and not the boy hugging the girl.

9.1.3. Picture choice tasks can also measure the level of complexity the child can comprehend. Complexity of directions and descriptions

10. Chapter 10

10.1. The position of a SLP is unique in many aspects. Serving as a pediatric SLP gives the clinician a title by many children "a toy doctor."

10.1.1. Typically the SLP in a hospital setting sees clients that are having trouble producing speech sounds or words, or are even not saying anything at all when they should be.

10.1.2. While working in a hospital, an SLP is typically part of a team of other clinicians that work to help their clients. For example, a physician my refer the parents to take their child to an SLP after the parents expressed that their child isn't producing sounds at a certain age. The SLP can then refer their clients to other resources within the neighborhood that will benefit and enhance their clients' health and language.

10.1.3. What the SLP does during their weekly/bi-weekly/monthly sessions is important to take home with the client. The families and parents should be continuing the lessons at home to increase the chances of therapy making a true impact on the child.