Psychosocial Development

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Psychosocial Development by Mind Map: Psychosocial Development

1. Autonomy

1.1. behavioral autonomy

1.1.1. decision-making abilities

1.1.1.1. Due to the changes in perspective taking and hypothetical thinking, the ability to engage in decision making improves throughout the course of adolescence (Steinberg, p. 243)

1.1.1.1.1. older adolescents are better than younger adolescents at considering the future outcomes of a decision, using independent consultants, assessing potential risks and considering the vested interests of certain parties (Steinberg, p. 243)

1.1.2. conformity and susceptibility to influence

1.1.2.1. The opinions and advice of others become more important as individuals progress through adolescence.

1.1.2.1.1. "Adolescents turn for advice to different people in different situations" (Steinberg, p. 245)

1.2. emotional autonomy

1.2.1. parent practices

1.2.1.1. "certain parenting practices have been found to be associated with the healthy development of emotional autonomy" (Steinberg, p.241)

1.2.1.1.1. "psychologists now realize parenting that emphasizes closeness tends to be linked with autonomous functioning in young people" (Steinberg, p. 242)

1.2.2. parent-child relationship

1.2.2.1. "young people become less depedent on their parents" (Steinberg, p. 238)

1.2.2.1.1. Individuation involves the young person taking increasing responsibility for the self, rather than expecting others to accept that responsibility (p. 239)

1.2.2.2. "less likely to turn to their parents for assistance, and more likely to realize their parents are not all knowing and all powerful" (Steinberg, p. 238)

1.2.2.3. develop emotional relationships outside of the family (Steinberg, p. 238)

1.2.2.3.1. "Emotional autonomy during adolescence involves a transformation, not a breaking off, of family relationships; adolescents can become emotionally autonomous from their parents without becoming detached from them" (Steinberg, p. 239)

1.3. cognitive autonomy

1.3.1. moral development

1.3.1.1. moral behavior

1.3.1.1.1. "people who reason ay higher stages behave in more moral ways" (Steinberg, p. 251)

1.3.1.2. prosocial behavior

1.3.1.2.1. "the ways in which individuals think about prosocial phenomena, such as honesty or kindness, become more sophisticated during late adolescence" (Steinberg, p. 252)

1.3.1.2.2. Preconventional moral reasoners tend to consider the consequences of a behavior in deciding whether it is the right course of action (Steinberg, p.250)

1.3.2. political development

1.3.2.1. "becomes more principled, more abstract, and more independent during the adolescent years" (Steinberg, p.255)

1.3.2.1.1. "the most important influence on the political behavior of young people tends to be the social context in which they grow up" (Steinberg, p.256)

1.3.3. moral reasoning

1.3.3.1. "Conventional moral reasoners refer to societal rules and standards in making moral judgments" (Steinberg, p.250)

1.3.3.1.1. begin to appear during preadolescence and continue into middle adolescence (Steinberg, p.251)

1.3.3.2. "Those who think in a postconventional way see social rules and standards as subjective, and reason about morality using general principles of right and wrong" (Steinberg, p. 250)

1.3.3.2.1. "does not appear until late adolescence, if at all" (Steinberg, p.251)

1.3.4. religious beliefs

1.3.4.1. "religious beliefs become more cognitively advanced during adolescence, but participation in organized religion tends to decline during the adolescent period" (Steinberg, p.257)

2. Identity

2.1. self-conceptions

2.1.1. "self understanding becomes more sophisticated, differentiated, organized, integrated and more abstract as one enters adolescence. Due to these changes, adolescents are better than children at engaging in false self-behavior" (Steinberg, p. 210-212)

2.1.2. "some researchers use the five-factor model to assess important aspects of personality. The five-factor model has five critical personality dimensions that are referred to as extraversion, agreeable, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness"(Steinberg, p. 212)

2.2. self-esteem

2.2.1. "adolescents' feelings about themselves fluctuate from day to day. From about age 14 and on, self-esteem is highly stable" (Steinberg, p. 213).

2.2.1.1. There are a number of things that affect self-esteem such as gender, social class, and academic ability. Self esteem is context dependent (Steinberg, p. 215)

2.2.1.1.1. "Adolescents' physical esteem is the most important predictor of self- esteem, followed by self-esteem about relationship with peers. Less importantly is self-esteem about academic ability, athletic ability, or moral conduct" (Steinberg, p. 215).

2.2.2. sex, class, and ethnic differences

2.2.2.1. "compared to early adolescent boys, early adolescent girls' self-esteem is lower, their degree of self-consciousness is higher, and their self-image is shakier" (Steinberg, p. 216).

2.2.2.1.1. young girls are more concerned about physical attractiveness, dating, and peer acceptance so they may experience a greater number of self-image problems (Steinberg, p. 216).

2.2.2.2. "black students on average have higher self-esteem than White students who tend to have higher self-esteem than Hispanic, Asian, or Native American youth" (Steinberg, p. 216).

2.2.2.3. lower class youth experience more difficulties with self-esteem than middle class youth (Steinberg, p. 218)

2.2.3. "self-esteem is enhanced behaving the approval of others, especially parents and peers, and by succeeding in school" (Steinberg, p. 218).

2.2.3.1. "adolescents who derive their self-esteem relatively more from peers than from teachers or parents show more behavioral problems and poorer school achievement" (Steinberg, p. 218)

2.2.3.2. "High self-esteem during adolescence does enhance adolescents' well-being, whereas low-self esteem may lead to mental health problems, both in the short run and well into adulthood. This may be due to the fact that many of the same factors that contribute to high self-esteem in adolescence are themselves stable over time and correlated with self-esteem at later ages" (Steinberg, p. 218)

2.3. identity crisis

2.3.1. Erikson's theoretical framework

2.3.1.1. "Erikson's theory is a lifespan perspective in which the individual moves through eight stages; each stage poses a new and different psychosocial crisis, which must be dealt with and hopefully resolved"(Steinberg, p. 219)

2.3.1.1.1. "identity versus identity diffusion- coherent sense of identity; maturational and social forces that converge at adolescence force young people to reflect on their place in society, on the ways that others view them, and their options for the future" (Steinberg, p. 219)

2.3.2. social context of identity development

2.3.2.1. "the course of identity development varies over different historical eras, in different cultures, and among different subcultures within the same society" (Steinberg, p. 220)

2.3.2.1.1. "According to Erikson, the complications inherent in identity development in modern society have created a time for psychosocial moratorium, a "time out" during adolescence from excessive responsibilities and obligations that might restrict the pursuit of self-discovery" (Steinberg, p. 220)

2.3.3. resolving the identity crisis

2.3.3.1. "experienced as a sense of well-being, a sense of knowing where one is going, and an inner assuredness of recognition from those who count"(Steinberg, p.221)

2.3.3.2. most writers believe identity crisis continues into young adulthood (steinberg, p. 221)

2.3.3.3. "when the identity crisis is successfully resolved, it culminates in a series of basic life commitments: occupational, ideological, social, religious, ethical, and sexual" (Steinberg, p. 221)

2.4. research on identity development

2.4.1. problems with identity development

2.4.1.1. Identity development does not occur the same way for all individuals. For some young people problems may occur (Steinberg, p. 221)

2.4.1.1.1. identity diffusion

2.4.1.1.2. identity foreclosure

2.4.1.1.3. negative identity

2.4.2. Studies suggest that establishing a sense of identity doesn't occur much before the age of 18 (Steinberg, p. 224)

2.4.3. "late teens and early 20s appear to be the critical times for a sense of identity to crystallize"(Steinberg, p.224)

2.5. ethnic identity

2.5.1. similar process to that of general identity development (Steinberg, p. 226)

2.5.2. "some parents use the process of ethnic socialization to teach their children about their ethnic or racial identity and about special experiences they may encounter within the broader society as a result of their ethnic background" (Steinberg, p. 227)

2.5.2.1. these children do not necessarily have stronger ethnic identities than children whose parents did not engage in ethnic socialization (Steinberg, p. 227)

2.6. gender identity

2.6.1. Gender is an important component of identity. From birth, males and females are socialized to act in gender-appropriate ways (Steinberg, p. 231)

2.6.1.1. "individuals vary in their degree of masculinity and femininity" (Steinberg, p. 233)

2.6.1.1.1. "boys who are especially masculine and girls who are especially feminine would fare better physchomogically than their peers who behave in gender-atypical ways" (Steinberg, p. 233)

3. Achievement

3.1. environmental influences

3.1.1. school

3.1.1.1. "school environments differ markedly- in physical facilities, in opportunities for pursuing academically enriched programs,and in classroom atmospheres" (Steinberg, p. 328)

3.1.1.1.1. "students are more engaged and successful in schools that are more personal, less departmentalized, and less rigidly tracked, and in which team teaching is used more frequently" (Steinberg, p. 328)

3.1.1.1.2. "Schools in low poverty areas dealing with challenging factors such as shrinking tax bases, decaying school buildings, outdated equipment, and shortage of textbooks and teachers, are less likely to succeed academically. The difficulty for success doesn't have to do with lack of talent or motivation" (Steinberg, p. 328)

3.1.2. home

3.1.2.1. "parents who encourage school success set higher standards for their child's school performance and homework; they have higher aspirations for their child" (Steinberg, p. 329)

3.1.2.1.1. "they have values that are consistent with doing well in school and provide a home environment that supports academic pursuits" (Steinberg, 330).

3.1.2.2. "authoritative parenting is linked to success during adolescence, as indexed by better grades, better attendance, higher expectations, more positive academic self-conceptions and stronger engagement in the classroom" (Steinberg, p. 330)

3.1.2.3. "quality of the home environment along with the amount of exposure to culturally enriching experiences and social support and encouragement have also been positively linked with academic success in adolescence" (Steinberg, p. 331)

3.1.3. friends

3.1.3.1. "friends are the most salient influences on adolescents' day-to-day school behaviors, such as doing homework and exerting effort in class" (Steinberg, p. 331)

3.1.3.1.1. "having friends who value success and earning high grades can have a positive influence whereas friends who don't care about school can have a negative influence" (Steinberg, p. 332).

3.2. occupational

3.2.1. "occupational development follows a sequence that involves an examination of one's traits, abilities, and interests; a period of experimentation with different work roles; and an integration of influences from one's past with hope one's hope for the future" (Steinberg, p. 343)

3.2.1.1. "over the course of young adulthood, one of the most important changes that occurs in the domain of occupational development is that individuals become both somewhat dillusioned and more focused on what they want from a job, abandoning the unrealistic notion that one can have it all" (Steinberg, p. 343)

3.2.1.2. "Adolescents' occupational achievements tend to be integrally linked with the achievements of parents and peers. Middle-class youngsters are more likely to enter middle-class occupations. There are numerous reasons for this match, including the level of educational attainment, stronger need for achievement, the opportunities available, the type of role models provided and the values shared" (Steinberg, p. 344)

3.2.1.3. "young people will often tailor their occupational decisions to fit the broader social context in which they live. This can be particularly limiting for lower class, female and minority youth" (Steinberg, p. 345)

3.3. educational

3.3.1. "defined in one of three ways: school performance, academic achievement, or educational attainment" (Steinberg, p. 333)

3.3.1.1. "Socioeconomic status is a very important influence on educational achievement. Middle-class adolescents tend to outperform lower-class adolescents" (Steinberg, p. 334)

3.3.1.1.1. "early home environments and differences in parents' expectations and aspirations can be an explanation for why lower-class students achieve less in school" (Steinberg, p. 334)

3.3.1.1.2. stress can be a connection between socioeconomic status and achievement (Steinberg, p. 334)

3.3.1.2. ethnic differences

3.3.1.2.1. "African American and Hispanic students tend to do more poorly in educational settings than White youngsters" (Steinberg, p. 335)

3.3.1.2.2. "The academic performance of Asian American students tends to exceed the performance of all three groups" (Steinberg, p.335)

3.4. noncognitive factors

3.4.1. motivation

3.4.1.1. "more successful individuals have a drive and capacity for self-direction than with their intelligence" (Steinberg, p. 323)

3.4.1.1.1. "individuals with relatively strong need for achievement and a relatively weak fear of failure are more likely to actively approach challenging achievement situations" (Steinberg, p. 324)

3.4.1.2. fear of failure can interfere with successful performance (Steinberg, p. 323

3.4.1.2.1. "many students who have trouble persisting at tasks and who fear failure become underachievers" (Steinberg, p. 324)

3.4.2. beliefs about success and failure

3.4.2.1. "adolescents make judgements about their likelihood of succeeding or failing and exert different degrees of effort accordingly" (p. 325)

3.4.2.1.1. "individuals attribute their performance to a combination of four factors: ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck" (Steinberg, p. 327).

3.4.2.2. "stereotype threat- the harmful effect that exposure to stereotypes about ethnic or sex differences in ability has on student performance" (Steinberg, p.324)

3.4.2.3. "extrinsically motivated individuals are focused on rewards for good grades whereas intrinsically motivated students receive satisfaction from mastering the material" (Steinberg, p. 326)

3.4.2.3.1. "Students who believe intelligence is fixed are greatly effected by the degree of confidence they have in their own abilities" (Steinberg, p. 326)