Concepts & Tools to Study Microorganisms

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Concepts & Tools to Study Microorganisms by Mind Map: Concepts & Tools to Study Microorganisms

1. Microscopy

1.1. Light Microscopy

1.1.1. Used to observe most organisms

1.1.2. Lenses Low-Power High-power Oil-immersion

1.1.3. Optical Configurations Phase-contrast Special condenser to see living, unstained Living!! Dark-field Shows specimen against dark background Treponeme pallidum Fluorescence Coated with glo-dye seen in UV light

1.2. Electron Microscopy

1.2.1. 2nm Resolution

1.2.2. Electrons are absorbed, reflected,

1.2.3. Transmission Electron 200K Resolution Ultrathin section Best resolution, best mag. Used to: internal components, viruses

1.2.4. Scanning Electron 20k resolution Unsectioned 3D Used to examine surface features

1.3. Properties

1.3.1. Magnification Increase of size

1.3.2. Resolution Ability to see separate two points

1.3.3. Refraction Measure of light-bending ability Oil-immersion reduces light refraction

1.4. Staining techniques

1.4.1. Simple Stain Basic dye Methylene Blue

1.4.2. Negative Stain Acidic duye Nigrosine Ink Dark backgrouns

1.4.3. Gram Stain Safranin used as counter stain Gram-positive Retain crystal violet More peptidoglycan Peptidoglycan cannot be washed off Purple - Positive Acid-Fast Gram-negative Do not retain crystal violet Less peptidoglycan Cell wall can be dissolved by alcohol Red - Negative

1.4.4. Spore Stain Endospore is stained Hard shell is not usually stained

2. Overview

2.1. Prokaryotic

2.1.1. Homeostasis Associative Learning

2.1.2. Biofilms Cell interaction through multicellular association Highly organized state Extracellular matrix of proteins, sugars, and other substances Impervious to antibiotics

2.1.3. Quorum Sensing Cell communication Chemical Can be used to sense numbers Keep tabs on each other Examples Cystic Fibrosis Otitis Media (Ear Infection Tooth Decay

2.2. Eukaryotic

2.3. Similarities

2.3.1. DNA controls structure and point

2.3.2. Response to stimuli

2.3.3. Biochemical Reactions Occur in H2O Growth + Energy

2.3.4. Adaptation Through mutation, learning

2.3.5. Interaction w/ organisms and environment

3. Similar Organizational Patterns

3.1. Genetic Organization

3.1.1. Eukaryotes Multiple, linear chromosomes

3.1.2. Prokaryotes Single, circular chromosome

3.2. Compartmentation (Cell Membrane)

3.2.1. Components Phosphilipids (Lipid Bilayer Proteins

3.2.2. Function Allow exchange of solutes ans wastes

3.3. Metabolism

3.3.1. Cytoplasm Chemical reactions and ATP (insert link here)

3.4. Protein Synthesis

3.4.1. Ribosome

4. Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Distinctions

4.1. Endomembrane System (In Eukaryotes)

4.1.1. Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER Protein Synthesis & Transport Smooth ER Lipid Synthesis & Transport

4.1.2. Golgi Apparatus Packaging proteins and lipids Come from ER

4.1.3. Lysosomes Digestive enzymes Breaks down foods Comes from Golgi Body

4.2. Endomembrane Alternative (In prokaryotes)

4.2.1. Proteins lack endomembrane system Can manufacture/modify proteins

4.2.2. Microcompartments Carry out chemical reactions Protect cell from toxic products from reactions

4.3. Energy Metabolism

4.3.1. Eukaryotes Mitochondria

4.3.2. Prokaryotes Cell Membrane

4.3.3. Chloroplasts Photosynthesis

4.4. Cell Structure & Transport

4.4.1. Cytoskeleton (Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes) Microtubules Originates from centrosome Microfilaments Intermediate Fiber

4.5. Cell Motility

4.5.1. Flagella Protists Back & Forth Motility Beating back and forth Thin protein projections Prokaroyotes Rotational propeller=like force for movement

4.5.2. Cilia Protists Shorter More than flagella Wave in synchrony, propel cell forward

5. Methods to Identify Microorgranisms

5.1. Physical Cahracteristics

5.1.1. Spore-forming abiity

5.1.2. motility

5.1.3. Ocygen, pH, grwoth temperature

5.2. Biochemical Tests

5.2.1. Fermentation

5.2.2. Uses of specific substrate

5.2.3. Key flow chart

5.3. Serological Tests

5.3.1. Antigen-antibody reactions

5.4. Nucleic Acid Analysis

5.4.1. Molecular genetics and genomes