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test 3 by Mind Map: test 3

1. sleep

1.1. sleep deprivation

1.1.1. chronic partial sleep deprevation

1.1.2. disc over water model

1.2. ontogeny of sleep

1.2.1. rem pressure

1.2.2. delta activity

1.2.3. shiftwork increased sleepiness decreased attention and performance increased health related problem cardiovascular disease GI tract problems

1.2.4. college life avoid studying after 9-10pm decreased attention and perfomance 1hr studying/reading during day=3hrs at night

1.3. brain areas of sleep

1.3.1. Hypothalamus superchiasmatic nucleus posterior hypothalamus preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus

1.3.2. reticular activating system

1.3.3. basal forebrain area

1.3.4. pons

2. vision

2.1. sensory experience

2.2. different across species

2.3. visual acuity

2.4. light

2.4.1. wavelength

2.4.2. intensity

2.4.3. satuation

2.5. human eye

2.5.1. retina fovea cones photoreceptors rods cones bipolar cells ganglion cells horixontal cells

2.5.2. bindspot

2.6. visual pathway

2.6.1. retina

2.6.2. optic nerve

2.6.3. optic chiasm

2.6.4. lateral geniculate nucleus magnocellular layers parvocellular layers

2.6.5. superior colliculus

2.6.6. primary visual cortex

2.7. components of photoreceptors

2.7.1. lamellae

2.7.2. photopigments opsin retinal rhodopsin

2.8. resting conditions vs lightwaves

2.9. lateral inhibition

2.10. central vs peripheral processing

2.11. trichromatic theory

2.11.1. dog

2.11.2. human

2.12. opponent processing theory

2.13. color blindness

2.13.1. red/green

2.13.2. blue/yellow

2.13.3. sex-linked trait

2.14. visual processing

2.14.1. ganglion cells central-peripheral opponent processing

2.14.2. lateral geniculate nucleus 6layers thalamus

2.14.3. primary visual cortex occipital lobe info from LGN column orientation

2.14.4. dorsal system tool use spatial recognition mirror neurons

2.14.5. ventral system perception of opbjects object recognition facial recognition fusiform facial area

3. reproductive behavior

3.1. neuroendocrine system

3.1.1. glands exocrine endocrine

3.1.2. gonads testes ovaries androgens testosterone estrogens estradiol progestin

3.1.3. adrenal cortex

3.1.4. pituitary gland gonadotropic hormones follicle-stimulating luteinizing

3.2. hypothalamus

3.2.1. medial preoptic area

3.2.2. ventral medial hypothalamus

3.2.3. sexual dimophic nucleus

3.3. hierarchical control

3.4. sexual development

3.4.1. genetics female XX increased risk of males XY increased risk of 23 sets dosage compentation

3.4.2. amygdala

3.4.3. cortex prefrontal primary visual cortex

3.4.4. ventral striatum nucleus accumbens anticipation pleasure

3.4.5. sexual orientation

3.4.6. gender identity

3.4.7. biological sex

3.4.8. transgendered

3.4.9. transexual

3.4.10. transvestite

3.4.11. homosexuality physiological differences hypothalamus enlargement SCN 2x cells anterior commissure larger developmental differences fraternal birth order genetic differences twin studies hormones

3.4.12. developmental systems bipotential system wolffian system sex determining region anti-muellerian hormone androgens muellerian system default female active component(?) estrogen critical period turners syndrome X0 androgen insensitivity syndrome XY Adrenogenital Syndrome XX

4. hunger

4.1. evolution

4.2. obesity

4.3. fuel absorption

4.3.1. carbohydrates simple complex

4.3.2. fats

4.4. pancrease

4.4.1. releases insulin when eating

4.4.2. excretes glucagon when fasting

4.5. liver

4.5.1. store glucose in form of glycogen

4.5.2. extra glucose

4.6. long term reservior

4.6.1. triglycaride fats, adipose tissue

4.6.2. fatty acids stearic oleic palmitic

4.7. experimental surgery

4.7.1. stereotaxic instrument lesion chemical electrical simulation

4.8. neural control of hunger

4.8.1. Ventral medial hypothalamus lesioned=fat rat dynamic stage static stage pair feeding center for satiety increases insulin levels

4.8.2. Lateral hypothalamus nigrostriatal bundle stimulate= increased eating center for hunger

4.8.3. paraventricular nucleus part of satiety? lesion= ^hunger for carbs SE NE

4.8.4. brainstem nucleus of solitary track dorsal motor nucleus of vagus

4.9. chemical control of hunger

4.9.1. fenfluramine phentermine (Fen-phen) artificial decreaseshunger increases 5-HT DA

4.9.2. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) natural increase in hypothalamus=big increases in eating

4.9.3. Ghrelin hormone peptide stomach hypothalamus hunger signals to brain gradual increase eating

4.9.4. Cholecystokinin (CKK) hormone/peptide stomache delayed signal induces satiety signal

4.9.5. Leptin hormone/peptide fat tissue induces satiety

4.9.6. less immediate/soft effects