Permission , Obligation & Necessity

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Permission , Obligation & Necessity by Mind Map: Permission , Obligation & Necessity

1. 1. OBLIGATION

1.1. A. SUGGESTION

1.1.1. i) 'SOFT' SUGGESTION

1.1.1.1. a) SHOULD OUGHT TO

1.1.1.1.1. I think we should change to clean energies.

1.1.1.1.2. REGRETS (refers to the past)

1.1.1.2. b) ENCOURAGE

1.1.1.2.1. I would encourage you to write a letter to your local politician .

1.1.2. ii) 'STRONG' SUGGESTION

1.1.2.1. a) HAD BETTER - more urgent - a warning - refers to immediate future

1.1.2.1.1. You'd better not tell him !

1.1.2.2. b) IT'S (HIGH / ABOUT) TIME THAT + SUBJECT + SIMPLE PAST (express indignation)

1.1.2.2.1. It's about time the local government created new parking areas .

1.1.2.3. c) URGE

1.1.2.3.1. We urge you to get your children vaccinated before they are two.

1.2. B. YOU HAVE TO

1.2.1. i) MUST vs HAVE TO

1.2.1.1. SUMMARY (click on link)

1.2.2. ii) MUSTN'T

1.2.2.1. You mustn't arrive late for the meeting.

1.2.3. iii) MUST --> 2 negatives

1.2.3.1. a) MUSTN'T (prohibition)

1.2.3.1.1. Tell them they mustn't make too much noise.

1.2.3.2. b) DON'T HAVE TO (absence of obligation)

1.2.3.2.1. You don't have to wear a tie at the wedding.

1.3. C. YOU SHOULD BUT MAYBE YOU DON`T

1.3.1. BE SUPPOSED TO / BE MEANT TO ---> 2 MEANINGS

1.3.1.1. MEANING 1 (click on image)= SOMETHING IS INTENDED or PLANNED TO HAPPEN BUT DOESN'T

1.3.1.2. MEANING 2 (click on image)= SOMETHING IS INTENDED or PLANNED TO HAPPEN BUT DOESN'T

2. Use SHOULD more Use SHOULD more Use SHOULD more Use SHOULD more Use SHOULD more

3. 3. PERMISSION

3.1. ASK FOR PERMISSION

3.1.1. May I......?

3.2. A. FORBIDDEN

3.2.1. i) NEUTRAL

3.2.1.1. NOT BE ALLOWED TO

3.2.1.1.1. You're not allowed to smoke in any public building in Spain .

3.2.1.2. NOT BE ABLE TO

3.2.1.2.1. From tomorrow you won't be able to park on this side of the street .

3.2.1.3. MUST NOT

3.2.1.3.1. You mustn't wear jeans in this nightclub.

3.2.1.4. CAN'T

3.2.1.4.1. You can't play football here .

3.2.2. ii) FORMAL

3.2.2.1. IT + NOT BE PERMITTED + TO - INFINITIVE / IT + BE FORBIDDEN + TO -INFINITIVE

3.2.2.1.1. It is not permitted to take mobiles into the classroom .

3.2.2.1.2. It is forbidden to walk a dog without a muzzle .

3.3. B. NOT FORBIDDEN

3.3.1. i) NEUTRAL

3.3.1.1. BE ALLOWED TO

3.3.1.1.1. You are allowed to take photos in this museum.

3.3.1.2. BE ABLE TO

3.3.1.2.1. You're able to park motorbikes on the pavement of this street .

3.3.1.3. CAN

3.3.1.3.1. You can skateboard in this square .

3.3.2. ii) FORMAL

3.3.2.1. IT + BE PERMITTED + TO-INFINITIVE

3.3.2.1.1. It used to be permitted to smoke in cinemas .

4. 2. NECESSITY

4.1. A. PAST

4.1.1. i) SOMETHING WAS NOT NECESSARY BUT YOU DID IT ANYWAY

4.1.1.1. NEEDN'T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE or DIDN'T NEED TO + INFINITIVE

4.1.1.1.1. You needn't have prepared all this food . We're actually not very hungry .

4.1.2. ii) SOMETHING WAS NOT NECESSARY SO YOU DIDN'T DO IT

4.1.2.1. DIDN'T NEED TO + INFINITIVE

4.1.2.1.1. In the end we didn't need to buy a new sink . Frank fixed it himself.

4.2. B. PRESENT

4.2.1. i) (DON'T) NEED TO + INFINITIVE = NECESSARY / UNNECESSARY

4.2.1.1. You can use this form for HABITUAL , GENERAL & SPECIFIC necessity.

4.2.1.1.1. HABITUAL

4.2.1.1.2. SPECIFIC OCCASION

4.2.2. ii) NEEDN'T + INFINITIVE WITHOUT 'TO' = UNNECESSARY

4.2.2.1. You can use this form for a SPECIFIC OCCASION ONLY

4.2.2.1.1. We needn't lock the car in this village . Nobody will steal it .