My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. 4 Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual

1.1.2. Political

1.1.3. Social

1.1.4. Economic

1.2. The Liberal Perspective

1.2.1. The Role of the School

1.2.1.1. Teach to children to respect diverse cultures.

1.2.1.2. Ensure that all students have an equal chance at success.

1.2.1.3. Stress the importance of citizenship and participating in Democracy.

1.2.1.4. Enabling any one student to develop his or her personal talents and identity.

1.2.2. Explanations of Unequal Performance

1.2.2.1. Students from poor backgrounds begin with unequal opportunities

1.2.2.2. Policies and programs must be implemented to even the playing field.

1.2.3. Definition of Educational Problems

1.2.3.1. Development of individuality stunted by focus on authority.

1.2.3.2. Life chances of poor and minority students are limited.

1.2.3.3. The traditional curriculum excludes diversity.

1.2.3.4. Differences in socioeconomic status related to inequalities of results.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. Cycles of Reform: Progressive and Traditional

2.1.1.1. The post-WWII historical reversal between progressive and traditional reform.

2.1.1.1.1. 1945-1955: Critical attack of progressive education of previous decades. Debate ended when the launch of the Sputnik led to a standards increase for mathematical and scientific literacy for the Space Race.

2.1.1.1.2. Mid-1960s saw a shift back to progressive reform because of the Civil Rights Movement.

2.1.1.1.3. Scathing criticism of U.S. Education throughout the 1960s and early 1970s.

2.2. Historical Interpretation

2.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School

2.2.1.1. Progressive evolution of school system providing equal opportunity for all

2.2.1.2. Educational opportunities expanded to larger and larger amounts of the population.

2.2.1.3. Reject meritorious (privileged) label for schools.

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. Functionalism

3.1.1.1. Examines how societies work together.

3.1.1.2. Society as a machine. One part of society works with another to produce a working whole.

3.1.1.3. Encourage social unity over conflict.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory

3.1.2.1. Emphasize struggle

3.1.2.2. Schools are social battlefields

3.1.2.3. Achievement ideology hides power relations of school, which later influences society in the same way.

3.1.3. Interactionalism

3.1.3.1. Critiques and Extensions of other two perspectives.

3.1.3.2. Turn commonplace school behaviors and interactions on their head.

3.1.3.3. Observe that other two perspectives view structure and process at a very general level of analysis.

3.2. 5 Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Knowledge and Attitude

3.2.1.1. More education leads to more literacy and understanding of political interplay.

3.2.1.2. Consistent discipline leads to achievement.

3.2.1.3. Higher social class tends to mean higher academic achievement.

3.2.1.4. Students who study during Summer make greater knowledge gains.

3.2.2. Employment

3.2.2.1. Employers expect an ever-increasing amount of formal education.

3.2.2.2. More education leads to increased income.

3.2.3. Teacher Behavior

3.2.3.1. Teachers influence student confidence and effective learning.

3.2.3.2. Research indicates that teacher's expectations of students influence student achievement.

3.2.3.3. High demands and praise from teachers cause students to learn more and feel better about themselves.

3.2.4. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

3.2.4.1. Students headed toward low-status jobs most likely to join a rebellious subculture.

3.2.4.2. Students attacking each other in increasing numbers.

3.2.4.3. Student subcultures continue to be important after high school

3.2.5. Gender

3.2.5.1. Biased textbooks ignore women's accomplishments and societal contributions.

3.2.5.2. Gender composition of faculty and staff is a possible explanation for girl's lowered self-esteem and aspirations as high school rolls on.

3.2.5.3. While schools tend to recreate gender inequalities, much more of the issue is rooted in the values and organization of society.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism

4.1.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1.1. Pose questions as to how their concerns impact on the lives of individuals.

4.1.1.2. Person is placed on Earth alone and must make sense of the chaos encountered.

4.1.1.3. Chaos, order, good, and evil are the choice of the individual.

4.1.2. Key Researchers

4.1.2.1. Jean-Paul Sartre

4.1.2.1.1. "Existence precedes essence"

4.1.2.1.2. People are capable of making a difference in a seemingly absurd world.

4.1.2.1.3. Rejected the existence of God

4.1.2.2. Soren Kierkergaard

4.1.2.2.1. Individuals accept god through "a great leap of faith."

4.1.2.2.2. Against the scientific, objective approach to existence.

4.1.2.3. Martin Buber

4.1.2.3.1. I-thou approach to teaching

4.1.2.4. Maxine Green

4.1.2.4.1. "Wide Awakeness"

4.1.3. Goal of Education

4.1.3.1. Focus on individual needs.

4.1.3.2. Include discussion of rational and non-rational world.

4.1.3.3. Should address tensions of living in the world.

4.1.4. Role of the Teacher

4.1.4.1. Should understand the student's and their own "lived worlds."

4.1.4.2. Must take risks to help students become "wide awake."

4.1.4.3. Instill introspection in students.

4.1.5. Methods of Instruction

4.1.5.1. View learning as intensely personal

4.1.5.2. Teacher must discover what learning style works for each student.

4.1.5.3. Nontraditional, nonthreatening, "friendship" where student and teacher learn interchangeably.

4.1.5.4. Present questions and activities to work together with the student to understand the world.

4.1.6. Curriculum

4.1.6.1. Biased towards humanities.

4.1.6.2. Literature

4.1.6.3. Art, drama, and music

4.1.6.4. Expose students, equally, to all the best and worst aspects of humankind at an early age.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Marshall County School District major stockholders

5.1.1. State Senators

5.1.1.1. Clay Scofield

5.1.2. House of Representatives

5.1.2.1. Robert Aderholt

5.1.3. State Superintendent

5.1.3.1. Michael Sentance

5.1.4. Representative on State School Board

5.1.4.1. Dr. Cynthia S. McCarty

5.1.5. Local Superintendent

5.1.5.1. Dr. Cindy Wigley

5.1.6. Local School Board

5.1.6.1. Dr. Cindy Wigley

5.1.6.2. Joe Van Bunch

5.1.6.3. Vince Edmonds

5.1.6.4. Terry Kennamer

5.1.6.5. Mark Rains

5.1.6.6. Tony Simmons

5.2. Elements of Change

5.2.1. Conflict

5.2.1.1. Democratization should allow issues to surface so that they can be resolved.

5.2.2. New Behaviors Learned

5.2.2.1. Communication and trust presents leadership and initiative to learn new techniques in collaboration

5.2.3. Team Building

5.2.3.1. Shared decision making should emerge in order to avoid elitism

5.2.4. Process and Content Interrelation

5.2.4.1. Project substance influenced equally by the process and content of said project

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Places student needs/interest before those of society

6.1.2. Emphasizes teaching process as much as content

6.1.3. Based around Piaget's developmental stages

6.1.4. Makes education come alive through the relation of schooling to life experience.

6.2. Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic

6.2.1.1. Specific transmission of knowledge

6.2.1.2. didactic method

6.2.1.3. Defines teaching as transfer of knowledge from "knower" to "learner"

6.2.1.4. A method of science

6.2.2. Transformative

6.2.2.1. Defines education as the meaningful changing of a student.

6.2.2.2. Change occurs through conversation between teacher and student.

6.2.2.3. Rejection of authoritarian relationship between teacher and student.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Impact on Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. Expense of school dictates higher expectation of success and longevity school for middle and upper class as opposed to lower or working class.

7.1.1.2. "Standard" English being spoken by middle and upper class students leads to them being more favored.

7.1.1.3. Direct correlation states achievement is higher when parental income is higher

7.1.2. Race

7.1.2.1. White students have lowest dropout rates and higher literacy rate.

7.1.2.2. Minorities statistically receive lower SAT scores which limits their college availability.

7.1.2.3. Reason for minority underachievement likely linked to fewer opportunities and rewards for educational success.

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. Women have less of a dropout rate and are more likely to be proficient in reading and writing than men.

7.1.3.2. Males outperform females in mathematics

7.1.3.3. More women are attending postsecondary institutions than men, but the ones attended by women are considered less academically and socially prestigious.

7.1.3.4. Recent studies show that women have caught up to men academically in almost all respects. Possibly surpassed.

7.1.4. Two Responses to 1982 Coleman Study

7.1.4.1. Significant differences in learning are negligible.

7.1.4.2. Racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has an impact on student achievement.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Two Types of Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. Working-class, nonwhite families lack cultural resources lack books and other educational materials, resulting in a significant disadvantage upon arrival at school.

8.1.2. Disadvantaged students lack the value system of hard work and initiative which marks success for middle-class children.

8.2. Four School-Centered Explanations

8.2.1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. Reliance on local property tax results in unequal funding.

8.2.2. Curriculum and Ability Grouping

8.2.2.1. Students grouped into lower academic tracks aren't challenged academically.

8.2.3. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

8.2.3.1. Class-based differences in schools content of study and level of authoritarianism

8.2.4. Gender and Schooling

8.2.4.1. Education and opportunities reduced for women due to the school system's reproduction of gender inequalities.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-based Reforms

9.1.1. Teacher Education

9.1.1.1. Not enough intellectual demand on would be teachers

9.1.1.2. Difficulty retaining and attracting teacher candidates

9.1.1.3. Academic and professional components of teacher education needs reorganized.

9.1.2. Teacher Quality

9.1.2.1. Research indicates a significant number of under-qualified teachers employed

9.1.2.2. Teachers assigned to subjects out of their field of study

9.1.2.3. Higher percentage of novice teachers in urban schools.

9.2. Societal, Community, Economic, and Political Reforms

9.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools

9.2.1.1. Aims to educate both child and community.

9.2.1.2. Designed to improve at-risk neighborhoods.

9.2.1.3. Schools as community centers

9.2.2. State Intervention and Mayoral Control in Local School Districts

9.2.2.1. Pros

9.2.2.1.1. Can bring about a positive change when done properly

9.2.2.1.2. Allows the state and local resources to combine to improve student knowledge.

9.2.2.1.3. Puts school boards on notice in a way that may halt political agendas, nepotism, and public bickering.

9.2.2.2. Cons

9.2.2.2.1. Can be perceived as attempt loosening of local control

9.2.2.2.2. Relies on narrow measures

9.2.2.2.3. Can harm student and community self-esteem