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I to E by Mind Map: I to E

1. Ductile work material, low rake angle, low cutting speed, high depth of cut, high feedrate, poor use of cutting fluid

2. Supporting for long or thin workpiece

2.1. Centres

2.1.1. Dead/plain centre Used for heavy loading turning Apply grease = reduce friction

2.1.2. Live/revolving centre Reduce temp generated at the centre Can rotate along with the workpiece

2.2. Steadies

2.2.1. Travelling Bolted to saddle Useful when length of workpiece is machined Prevents the metal from bending under cuttinf pressure

2.2.2. Fixed Bolted to bed Used to support work or long bar a distance from the chuck Useful for turning a part of a long slender job For drilling, boringo reaming at end of workpiece

3. Gang milling

3.1. Uses more than 2 cutters

3.2. Used to mill a number of diff simultaneously

4. Straddle milling

4.1. Uses 2 Side and face cuters for machining 2 parallel surafes of the work piece

4.2. Cut same depth on workpiece

4.3. Reduces machining time

5. Components

5.1. Table

5.1.1. With a leadscrew the table can move left and right

5.2. Spindle

5.2.1. Connected to the motor

5.2.2. Drives the arbor

5.3. Base

5.3.1. Foundation of machine

5.3.2. Storage tank for coolant

5.4. Brace

5.4.1. Additional support and rigidity to a long arbor

5.5. Arbor

5.5.1. Mount cutting tools

5.5.2. Rotates the cutter about a horizontal axis

5.6. Overarm

5.6.1. Support for free end of a long arbor

5.7. Column

5.7.1. Houses the electrical circuitry, the main drive and spindle bearings

5.8. Knee

5.8.1. Acts as a support for the saddle, work table and other accessories

5.9. Saddle

5.9.1. Enables the table to move along the clomun and provides vertical motion

6. Lathe Machine

6.1. Cutting metal

6.2. Uses cutting tool

7. Turning Operations

7.1. Boring

7.1.1. To enlarge an existing hole

7.1.2. Must be done after drilling

7.2. Turning

7.2.1. Reduce diameter of work piece

7.2.2. Parallel to the axis of rotation

7.3. Threading

7.3.1. Parallel to axis of rotation

7.3.2. Faster

7.4. Facing

7.4.1. Fed on 1 end

7.4.2. Create a flat surface

7.5. Parting/Cut-off

7.5.1. Cut of a specific length of work piece

7.5.2. From center of work piece

7.6. Grooving

7.6.1. Fed near the mid

7.6.2. To a specific depth

7.7. Reaming

7.7.1. For finishing

7.7.2. Must be done after drilling

7.8. Drilling

7.8.1. Create a hole

7.8.2. In the middle

8. Turning feeds and speeds

9. Cutting Theory

9.1. Cutting Methods

9.1.1. Oblique Any angle other than 90 Better at leaving a finishing than orthogonal

9.1.2. Orthogonal Set at 90 degrees to the direction of movement Effectiveness depends on slope

9.2. Factors affecting cutting operations

9.2.1. Work piece material Wood, Metal, Acrylic

9.2.2. Conditions Wet/Dry

9.2.3. Tool material Diamond, Cast cobalt alloys, Cemented carbide

9.2.4. Machine rigidity Machine dsign/Machine condition

9.3. Cutting conditions

9.3.1. Increase feedrate, increase depth of cut, decrease cutting speed Quick material remover

9.3.2. Decrease feedrate, decrease depth of cut, increase cutting speed Finishing cuts

10. Single pointed tool geometry

10.1. Positive rake angle tools

10.1.1. Higher angle = Better surface finish

10.1.2. Less cutting force and power

10.1.3. Tool becomes weaker

10.1.4. Higher tool life

10.2. Negative rake angle tools

10.2.1. Surface finish sucks

10.2.2. Thin continuous chips

10.2.3. High cutting speeds

11. Types of chips

11.1. Affected by

11.1.1. Work Material, Tool Geometry, Cutting Conditions, Presence of cutting fluids

11.2. Discontinuous chips

11.2.1. Brittle work material, small rake angle, low cutting speed, large depth of cut, large feedrate, lack of cutting fluid

11.3. Continuous chips

11.3.1. Ductile work material, large rake angle, high cutting speed, small depth of cut, low feedrate, effiicient use of cutting fluid, cutting tool with less pressure

11.4. Continuous chips with a built-up edge

12. Tool holding devices

12.1. Front tool post

12.1.1. Only 1 tool at a time

12.2. 4-way tool post

12.2.1. hold up to 4 diff tools

12.2.2. Can find the centre of turning tool

12.2.3. Can be rotated and clamped in any position

12.3. Quick change tool post

12.3.1. Fast in swapping out tools

12.3.2. Useful for batch prodution

12.4. Tail Stock

12.4.1. Can be mounted with a drill chuck

12.4.2. Hold drilling bits

13. Work holding and supporting devices

13.1. Holding workpiece

13.1.1. 3 jaws chucks Scrolling mechanism to clamp the work piece Advantage Workpiece will be clamped in the centre of the chuck Can work with workpiece with large diameter but shorter length Disadvantage Low gripping strength Jaws are not interchangeable Clamping restriction

13.1.2. 4 jaw chucks All jaws are operated independently Need 4 chuck keys to complete clmaping of workpiece More accurate as each jaw can be adjusted individually Advantage High gripping strength Clamping variability Can work with workpiece with larger diameter but shorter length Disadvantage Too long to set-up

13.1.3. Mandrels Plain solid Only 1 size of bore Expnsion Suitable for slight diff in diameter Cone Suitable for workpiece with diff hole diameter Gang Suitable for many identical workpieces

14. Milling machine

14.1. Intro

14.1.1. Either horizontal or vertical

14.1.2. Work is fed against a revolving cutting tool

14.1.3. Material removal process

14.2. 3 types

14.2.1. Horizontal Advantage Number of surfaces can be machined in 1 go due to large cutting tool area Disadvatage Cannot drill hole

14.2.2. Vertical Used for profiling internal and external surfaces Drilling and boring holes Advantages Can perorm mny types of machining processes than the horizontal machine Easy to mount tools Disadvantages Obstructed view of cutter and workpiece

14.2.3. Universal

15. Milling cutters

15.1. Horizontal

15.1.1. Convex cutter

15.1.2. Slab mill

15.1.3. Slide and face staggered cutter

15.1.4. Angle cuter

15.1.5. Slitting saw

15.1.6. Slotting cutter

15.2. Vertical

15.2.1. Face mill

15.2.2. End mill

15.2.3. Ball-nosed slot drill

15.2.4. T-slot cutter

15.2.5. Fly cutter

15.2.6. Dovetail cutter

16. Gears and pulleys

16.1. Gears

16.1.1. Spur gears

16.1.2. Helical spur gears

16.1.3. Bevel gears

16.1.4. Helical gears

16.1.5. Worm and worm wheel

16.1.6. Rack and pinion

16.2. Pulleys and belts

16.2.1. Round belt

16.2.2. Flat belt

16.2.3. Vee belt

16.2.4. Timing belt

16.2.5. Conveyer belt