Instruction consists of a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal process of learning(Gagne'1977, 1985) These events help the leaner progress from,"where they are"to the target objective. These events can be supplied by the teacher, text or any other media the learner interacts with. With self-instruction most of these events are provided by the learner themselves.
Instructional Events 1. Gaining Attention 2. Informing learner of the objective 3. Stimulatin recall of prerequisite learning 4. Presenting the stimulus material 5. Providing learning guidance 6. Eliciting the performance 7. Providing feedback about performance correctness 8. Assessing the performance 9. Enhancing retention and transfer
1. Gain Attention
2. Inform Learner objectives
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning
4. Present stimulus material
5. Providing leaner guidance
6. Elicit performance
7. Provide feedback
8. Assess the performance
9. Enhancing retention and transfer
Examples of contexts in which an instructional designer works:, Education, Health, Finance, Government
Reading on Instructional Design
Learning technology products
All1. All design model focus attention on three, “ anchor points” of instruction The more comprehensive models have 14 stages in the design of instruction of an educational system
Lesson Planning, 1. Classifying the lesson objectives by learning type, 2. Listing the needed instructional events, 3. Choosing a medium/materials of instruction capable of providing those events, 4. Incorporating appropriate conditions of learning into the prescriptions indicating how each event will be accomplished by the lesson
System Level, Analysis of needs, goals and priorities, Analysis of resources, constraints and alternate delivery systems, Determination of scope and sequence of curriculum, courses
Lesson Level, Definition of performance objectives, preparing lesson plans or modules, Developing, selecting materials, media, Assessing student performance
System Level, Teacher preparation, Formative Evaluation, Field testing, revision, Summative evaluation, Installation and diffusion
Course Level, Determining course structure and sequence, analysis of course objectives
Defining goals are very important and they need to be specific. Many goals are needed to move the learner a step closer to the distant goal. Each performance of objective of a course defines unique performance that is expected as an outcome of the instruction.
The identification and definition of performance objectives is one of the most important steps in the design of instruction. These are vital as they act as guidelines for developing the instruction and for designing measures of student performance to determine whether the course objectives have been met.
Five-component guide to writing performance objectives, Situation, Learned capability, Object, Action, Tools and constraints
The selsction of media depends on a number of factors
In order to assess student performance on the planned objectives of a course, objective-referenced tests or norm-reference tests can be used.
Objective-referenced tests employing a criterion –referenced interpretation serves the following purposes: 1. They show whether each student has mastered an objective and, hence, may go on to student for another objective. 2. 1. They permit early detection and diagnosis of failure to learn, thus helping to identify the remedial student needed. 3. 2. They provide data for making improvements in the instruction itself. 4. 3. They are fair evaluations in that they measure performance on the objective that was given to the student as an indication of what he was supposed to learn.
Norm-referenced testing do not measure separate, specific objectives of the course, but rather they measure mixtures or composite sets of objectives, whether these are identified or not.
● General Introduction ● Statement of what the client wants form a learning technology ● Statement of what the user needs ● Description of the general treatment and reasons for choice ● Variations on the treatment that are possible ● Outline diagram of the proposed structure ● Description of the human resources needed ● Work breakdown and schedule ● Cost/payment structure ● Company statement of the limitations of the proposal
writing a client-scoping questionnaire
evaluating the flow charts
evaluating the story boards
The evaluation of programs, courses need to contain the following questions 1. 1.Have the objectives of instruction been met? 2. 2. Is the new program better than one it is expected to supplant? 3. 3. What addition effects does the new program produce?
formative evaluation is undertaken while the unit is being developed. Its purpose is to provide evidence on feasibility and effectiveness so that revision and improvements can be made. It seeks evidence from observers, teachers and students.
Summative Evaluation is concerned with the effectiveness that has been developed. The main evidence is sought by student performance. These summative evaluations are undertaken to compare an entire instructional program with another. The outcomes of the program are influence by the following variables: 1. Aptitude variables: reflecting the students ability for learning 2. Process variables: Arising from the manner of operation of instruction in the class or school. 3. Support variables: conditions in the home, school, workplace and community that affect the opportunities for learning.
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