8th Grade Science

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8th Grade Science by Mind Map: 8th Grade Science

1. The Nature of Science

1.1. Asking Questions

1.1.1. Means thinking like a scientists

1.2. Making Hypotheses

1.2.1. a hypothesis is stated so that it can be tested by observation or investigation

1.2.2. use data to make your hypothesis

1.3. Testing Hypotheses

1.3.1. design a test that only tests your hypotesis

1.3.2. repeat test several times

1.3.3. use a data table to organize your data

1.4. Analyzing Results

1.4.1. data from investigation used to draw a conclusion

1.4.1.1. if your hypothesis is wrong the experiment is ot a failure

1.5. Experimentation

1.5.1. starts as a question

1.5.1.1. make a hypothesis

1.5.1.1.1. design an experiment

1.6. Conveying the Results

1.6.1. record data in a data table to use later

1.6.1.1. You can also use graphs

1.6.1.1.1. Bar Graphs are used to compare

1.6.1.1.2. Line graphs are used to show change over time

1.6.1.1.3. Graphs can be used to communicate results visually

1.7. Using Models

1.7.1. advantages

1.7.1.1. can make hard ideas easy to see

1.7.2. disadvantages

1.7.2.1. are difficult to make exactly like full size

1.8. Making Predictions

1.8.1. Data and modles ofter show trends or patterns to help predic an event

1.9. Draw Conclusions

1.9.1. Use data to make a conclution.

2. Living Systems and the Environment

2.1. Living Systems

2.1.1. an organism is a living thing that can funcion independently

2.1.1.1. organisms are made up of cells some are made of only one type of cells their called (unicellular)

2.2. Types of Cells

2.3. Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems

2.3.1. their are 8 different types of body systems

2.3.2. cells, tissue, organs, are pjart of ur body system

2.3.2.1. New node

2.4. Equillibrium

2.4.1. when ur temperature reaches a certain point it opens up ur sweat glands and cools ur body

2.4.1.1. equillibrium occurs when systems are balenced

2.4.1.1.1. if the enviroment changes permanantly a whole population can decrease if they cannot adapt

2.5. Adaptations and Genes

2.5.1. adaption is changing to survive a certain weather or enviroment

2.5.1.1. gene is a DNA trait that is passed from parents to child

2.5.1.1.1. a genetic trait that is pased to offspring and is used as an advatage is called adaptation

2.5.2. Motion, Forces, and Energy Energy is the ability to work, motion requires energy, and motion forces and energy all require each other to do things motion needs energy energy needs force, and force needs energy/ energy gos in the same shape, and direction.

2.6. Ecosystems

2.6.1. New node

2.7. Food Chains

2.7.1. chemical energy is transfered through living organisms

2.7.1.1. fungi's a decomposer

2.7.1.1.1. sun light is the start of the food chain

2.8. Balance of Nature

2.9. Succession

2.9.1. New Note

3. Structures and Properties of Matter

3.1. Matter

3.1.1. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.

3.1.1.1. The Three Types Of Matter: solid,liquid,gas

3.1.1.2. Solid- Matter with a definite shape and volume.

3.1.1.2.1. Liquid- Matter with a definite volume but, no definite shape.

3.2. The Periodic Table

3.2.1. the periodic table is a tool that can calculate physical and cemical property's there are 112 elements every element has an symbol ,atomic numder,and atomic mass.

3.3. Metals and Nonmetals

3.3.1. Metal- element that has luster,is malleable and ductile, and is a good conducter of heat and electricity

3.3.1.1. Nonmetals-element that usuallya gas or brittle solid at room temperature and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.

3.4. Molecules and Compounds

3.5. Mixtures

3.5.1. Mixtures are compunds made up of two or more pure subctences.

3.5.1.1. Thesee type of subcsences have been mixed together but have not formed any new molicules.

3.5.1.1.1. Conpounds can be separated by useing a filter. One type of filter is a shake screen.

3.6. Properties of Substances

3.6.1. Property is something about a substance that can help to define it

3.6.2. New node

3.7. Chemical Reactions

3.7.1. during a chemical reaction bonds breakdown and new bonds are formed

3.8. Chemical Equations

3.8.1. letters tell us what substance are involed in the eaquation. The numbers tell us how many molicu

4. Motion, Forces, and Energy

4.1. Energy and Its Different Types

4.2. Force and Motion

4.3. Acceleration

4.3.1. Acceleration- change in velocity divided by the amount of time needed for that change to take place;occurs whe an object speeds up,slows down,or changes direction

4.3.1.1. A=(final speed-initial speed) ---------------------------------- time

4.4. Machines

5. Earth and Space Systems

5.1. Lunar and Solar Eclipse

5.1.1. a lunar eclipse when the earth blocks the sunlight from reachin the moon.

5.1.2. a solar eclipse is when the light of the sun light is blocked from reaching part of the earth.

5.1.3. since the moon is much closer to the earth than the sun the moons shadow is castoverbt only a little portion of earths sun lit side

5.1.4. the moon revolves earth in a regular orbit. one orbit takes at least 30days. the moon

5.2. Phases of the Moon

5.2.1. there are 8 phases: New moon,Waxing Cresent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Last Quarter, Waning Cresent.

5.2.1.1. New moon:When there is no moon in the sky.

5.3. Effects of the Earth's Tilt

5.4. Solar and Space Systems

5.4.1. The solar systom hass suns planets astroid belts and Oort clouds

5.4.1.1. The planets get colder they get from the sun.The sun has the greatest gravitational pull.

5.4.1.1.1. Besides moons planets and the sun we have comets and Asteriods. They are made up of ice dust and hot rocks.

5.5. Earth Systems

5.5.1. earth systems are all driven by evergy

5.6. The Rock Cycle

5.6.1. it starts of as a volcano

5.6.1.1. then there is lava

5.6.1.1.1. then theres plaetu

5.7. Volcanoes

5.7.1. A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. Eruptions can cause lateral blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, avalanches, falling ash and floods. Volcano eruptions have been known to knock down entire forests. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls.

5.8. The Water Cycle

5.9. Nitrogen Cycle and Carbon Cycle

5.10. Natural Disasters

5.10.1. Natural disaster are bad to the bone there effects are terible and can effect from county too country it can take out he sun fore days and nothing can grow, it effects land, water on the earth

5.11. Pollution

5.11.1. Pollution can alter the environment.One way is producing harmful chemical waste. These harmful things make pollution.Two basic forms are gases released into the atmosphere and shemicals that are carrried by water into the watershed.

5.12. Renewable and Non-renewable Resources