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8th Grade Science by Mind Map: 8th Grade Science
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8th Grade Science

The Nature of Science

Asking Questions

Means thinking like a scientists

Making Hypotheses

a hypothesis is stated so that it can be tested by observation or investigation

use data to make your hypothesis

Testing Hypotheses

design a test that only tests your hypotesis

repeat test several times

use a data table to organize your data

Analyzing Results

data from investigation used to draw a conclusion, if your hypothesis is wrong the experiment is ot a failure

Experimentation

starts as a question, make a hypothesis, design an experiment, identify variables, independent variable is the variable you change, dependent variable cahnges because of the independent variable, controled variables are things you control to maintain a valid experiment

Conveying the Results

record data in a data table to use later, You can also use graphs, Bar Graphs are used to compare, Line graphs are used to show change over time, Graphs can be used to communicate results visually, Scientists can evaluate data and draw conclusions to establish their own ideas about information

Using Models

advantages, can make hard ideas easy to see

disadvantages, are difficult to make exactly like full size

Making Predictions

Data and modles ofter show trends or patterns to help predic an event

Draw Conclusions

Use data to make a conclution.

Living Systems and the Environment

Living Systems

an organism is a living thing that can funcion independently, organisms are made up of cells some are made of only one type of cells their called (unicellular)

Types of Cells

Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems

their are 8 different types of body systems

cells, tissue, organs, are pjart of ur body system, New node

Equillibrium

when ur temperature reaches a certain point it opens up ur sweat glands and cools ur body, equillibrium occurs when systems are balenced, if the enviroment changes permanantly a whole population can decrease if they cannot adapt

Adaptations and Genes

adaption is changing to survive a certain weather or enviroment, gene is a DNA trait that is passed from parents to child, a genetic trait that is pased to offspring and is used as an advatage is called adaptation

Motion, Forces, and Energy Energy is the ability to work, motion requires energy, and motion forces and energy all require each other to do things motion needs energy energy needs force, and force needs energy/ energy gos in the same shape, and direction.

Ecosystems

New node

Food Chains

chemical energy is transfered through living organisms, fungi's a decomposer, sun light is the start of the food chain

Balance of Nature

Succession

New Note

Structures and Properties of Matter

Matter

Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass., The Three Types Of Matter: solid,liquid,gas, Solid- Matter with a definite shape and volume., Liquid- Matter with a definite volume but, no definite shape., Gas- Matter that doesnt have definite shape or volume. Gas: Is made up of tiny little particles which, are molecules., Volume: Takes up the space and has mass.

The Periodic Table

the periodic table is a tool that can calculate physical and cemical property's there are 112 elements every element has an symbol ,atomic numder,and atomic mass.

Metals and Nonmetals

Metal- element that has luster,is malleable and ductile, and is a good conducter of heat and electricity, Nonmetals-element that usuallya gas or brittle solid at room temperature and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.

Molecules and Compounds

Mixtures

Mixtures are compunds made up of two or more pure subctences., Thesee type of subcsences have been mixed together but have not formed any new molicules., Conpounds can be separated by useing a filter. One type of filter is a shake screen.

Properties of Substances

Property is something about a substance that can help to define it

New node

Chemical Reactions

during a chemical reaction bonds breakdown and new bonds are formed

Chemical Equations

letters tell us what substance are involed in the eaquation. The numbers tell us how many molicu

Motion, Forces, and Energy

Energy and Its Different Types

Force and Motion

Acceleration

Acceleration- change in velocity divided by the amount of time needed for that change to take place;occurs whe an object speeds up,slows down,or changes direction, A=(final speed-initial speed) ---------------------------------- time

Machines

Earth and Space Systems

Lunar and Solar Eclipse

a lunar eclipse when the earth blocks the sunlight from reachin the moon.

a solar eclipse is when the light of the sun light is blocked from reaching part of the earth.

since the moon is much closer to the earth than the sun the moons shadow is castoverbt only a little portion of earths sun lit side

the moon revolves earth in a regular orbit. one orbit takes at least 30days. the moon

Phases of the Moon

there are 8 phases: New moon,Waxing Cresent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Last Quarter, Waning Cresent., New moon:When there is no moon in the sky.

Effects of the Earth's Tilt

Solar and Space Systems

The solar systom hass suns planets astroid belts and Oort clouds, The planets get colder they get from the sun.The sun has the greatest gravitational pull., Besides moons planets and the sun we have comets and Asteriods. They are made up of ice dust and hot rocks., All of these things are lightyears away from echother but they are all in one big galaxy know as the Milky Way Galaxy. THhe galaxy has over 100 billion stares and it would take 100,000 years to travel across the Milky Way and light travles at 300,000,000 mp/s.

Earth Systems

earth systems are all driven by evergy

The Rock Cycle

it starts of as a volcano, then there is lava, then theres plaetu, we think the earths crust is solid but i really isnt, the procces of rocks braking down into smaller rocks is called weathering, the movement of particles from one location to another is called eroshing

Volcanoes

A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. Eruptions can cause lateral blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, avalanches, falling ash and floods. Volcano eruptions have been known to knock down entire forests. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls.

The Water Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle and Carbon Cycle

Natural Disasters

Natural disaster are bad to the bone there effects are terible and can effect from county too country it can take out he sun fore days and nothing can grow, it effects land, water on the earth

Pollution

Pollution can alter the environment.One way is producing harmful chemical waste. These harmful things make pollution.Two basic forms are gases released into the atmosphere and shemicals that are carrried by water into the watershed.

Renewable and Non-renewable Resources