The Endocrine System Disorder

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The Endocrine System Disorder by Mind Map: The Endocrine System Disorder

1. Parathyroid Gland

1.1. Hypothyroidism

1.1.1. Etiology Pituitary or hypothalamic failure causing secondary hypothyroidism

1.1.2. Clinical Findings Weight gain Constipation Dry eyes

1.1.3. Laboratory Diagnosis Thyroid Function Test (serum)

1.2. Hyperthyroidism

1.2.1. Etiology Due to excess iodine, inflammation of the thyroid & large amounts of tetraiodothyronine taken through dietary supplements or medication.

1.2.2. Clinical Findings Dizziness Restlessness Fast & irregular heart rate Difficulty in sleeping

1.2.3. Laboratory Diagnosis Thyroid Function Test (serum)

2. Pituitary Gland

2.1. Anterior

2.1.1. Prolactinoma Etiology condition in which a noncancerous tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland in brain overproduces the hormone prolactin Clinical Findings Irregular menstrual period Erectile dysfunction Infertility Laboratory diagnosis Prolactin test Thyroid Function Test

2.1.2. Growth Hormone Adenoma Etiology An excessive production of growth hormone causes acromegaly in adults or gigantism in children. Clinical Findings Gigantism Acromegaly Laboratory Diagnosis Growth hormone test

2.2. Posterior

2.2.1. Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-diuretic Hormone (SIADH) Etiology Excessive levels of antidiuretic hormones in body Clinical Findings Seizure Confusion Loss of appetite Laboratory Diagnosis Urine for Sodium test ADH Test

2.2.2. Diabetes Insipidus Etiology Caused by low or absent secretion of the water-balance hormone vasopressin from the pituitary gland of the brain, or by a poor kidney response to this chemical messenger, which is also called antidiuretic hormone. Clinical Findings Polyuria Laboratory Diagnosis 24hrs urine collection

3. Pancreas

3.1. Diabetes Mellitus

3.1.1. Etiology TYPE 1 DM known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.

3.1.2. Clinical Findings Blurred vision Polyuria Fatigue Numbness

3.1.3. Laboratory Diagnosis Fasting blood sugar Random blood sugar Oral glucose tolerance Urine for glucose test HbA1c

4. Thyroid Gland

4.1. Grave's Disease

4.1.1. Etiology An autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating auto antibodies. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs) bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors, causing the thyroid gland to grow and the thyroid follicles to increase synthesis of thyroid hormone.

4.1.2. Clinical Findings Goiter Grave's opthalmopathy Eyes protrude from the eye sockets. Pretibial Myxedema Patchy and pink skin lesions. Intolerance to heat Slow speech Weight loss

4.1.3. Laboratory Diagnosis Thyroid Function Test (serum) T4 T3 TSH Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin (TSI)

4.2. Hashimoto Thyroiditis

4.2.1. Etiology Caused by an autoimmune process that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland.

4.2.2. Clinical Findings Increase in metabolic process Increase in stomach acid Fatigue Weight gain

4.2.3. Laboratory Diagnosis Thyroid Function Test ( serum) T4 T3 TSH Thyroid Simulating Immunoglobulin (TSI)

5. Adrenal Gland

5.1. Cushing's Disease

5.1.1. Etiology Due to excess secretion of cortisol

5.1.2. Clinical Findings Hypertension Obesity Depression Osteoporosis

5.1.3. Laboratory Diagnosis Serum cortisol test Random/24hrs urine cortisol test

5.2. Addison's Disease

5.2.1. Etiology due to low secretion of cortisol

5.2.2. Clinical Findings Fatigue Hypotension Hypoglycemia Hypocalcemia

5.2.3. Laboratory Diagnosis Serum cortisol test Random/ 24hrs urine cortisol test